Coyotes in New Jersey
Coyote Management: An Integrated Approach (html) - from 2006 Hunting Digest
Coyote Management: An Integrated Approach (pdf, 113kb)
Coyote Sighting/Mortality/Nuisance Report Form (pdf, 17kb)
Furbearer Management Newsletters
The first known record of coyote occurrence in New Jersey was recorded near Lambertville, Hunterdon County in 1939. The animal was described in newspaper accounts as "a long, bushy tailed animal looking something like a police dog but with the coloration of a coyote". The mounted skin is in the collection of the New Jersey State Museum in Trenton. The Division of Fish and Wildlife received another 29 reports statewide sporadically over the ensuing 40 years, but increased significantly since 1980.
To date, coyotes have been documented in nearly 400 municipalities from all 21 counties (94% of the state's land area):
Range Expansion of the Eastern Coyote in New Jersey (pdf, 1.4mb)
Range Expansion of the Eastern Coyote in New Jersey (pps, 1.6mb)
Contrary to public opinion, the Division has never imported coyotes at any time in the past, although there is evidence that private citizens throughout the state have done so prior to 1950. Regardless of how they got here, the coyote's extremely adaptable nature have allowed them to survive and thrive throughout the state.
The coyote is a wild member of the dog family and closely resembles a small German shepherd with the exception of its long snout and bushy, black-tipped tail. Another key difference from a domestic dog is readily noticeable even from a distance: The coyote has a habit of holding its tail below a horizontal position while standing, walking and running.
Eastern coyotes differ from their western counterparts with a larger average size and various color phases, including blonde, red and black. Past interbreeding between wolves and coyotes may be responsible for the larger size and color variations in our eastern coyote. In New Jersey, adult coyotes range in weight from 20-50 lbs. and exceptionally large ones may be up to 55 lbs.
Coyotes adjust well to their surroundings and can survive on whatever food is available. They prey on rabbits, mice, birds and other small animals, as well as young and weakened deer. They also consume carrion (decaying tissue). They are tolerant of human activities and rapidly adapt to changes in their environment.
Eastern coyotes differ from their western counterparts with
a larger average size and various color phases, including blonde
Coyotes bear litters during April and May, with females delivering between three and nine pups. Conflicts between coyotes and humans are most likely to develop as adults forage for food for the pups in the spring and summer.
Coyotes primarily hunt rodents and rabbits for food, but will take advantage of whatever is available, including garbage, pet food and domestic animals that are left unattended. Allowing coyotes access to human food and garbage is irresponsible and can lead to problems.
Coyotes, along with foxes, are sometimes afflicted with mange which can result in significant hair loss. The loss of fur can result in making identification of a coyote difficult, resulting in reports of a "mystery" animal, or even a cougar.
In suburban and urban areas, coyotes have occasionally attacked small pets. Although attacks on humans are extremely rare in eastern states, as with any predatory animal they can occur.
Coyotes play an important role in the ecosystem, helping to keep rodent populations under control. They are by nature wary of humans. However, coyote behavior changes if given access to human food and garbage. They lose caution and fear. They may cause property damage and threaten human safety, requiring euthanasia. Relocating a problem coyote is not an option because it only moves the problem to someone else's neighborhood.
The following guidelines can help reduce the likelihood of conflicts
- Never feed a coyote. Deliberately feeding coyotes puts pets and
other residents in the neighborhood at risk.
- Feeding pet cats and/or feral (wild) cats outdoors can attract
coyotes. The coyotes feed on the pet food and also prey upon the
- Put garbage in tightly closed containers that cannot be tipped
- Remove sources of water, especially in dry climates.
- Bring pets in at night.
- Put away bird feeders at night to avoid attracting rodents and
other coyote prey.
- Provide secure enclosures for rabbits, poultry, and other farm
- Pick up fallen fruit and cover compost piles.
- Although extremely rare, coyotes have been known to attack humans.
Parents should monitor their children, even in familiar surroundings,
such as backyards.
- Install motion-sensitive lighting around the house.
- Clear brush and dense weeds from around dwellings - this reduces
protective cover for coyotes and makes the area less attractive
to rodents and rabbits. Coyotes, as well as other predators, are
attracted to areas where rodents are concentrated like woodpiles.
- If coyotes are present, make sure they know they're not welcome.
Make loud noises, blast a canned air siren, throw rocks, or spray
them with a garden hose.
Past interbreeding between wolves and coyotes may be responsible
for the larger size and color variations in the eastern coyote.
If you observe coyotes in the daytime that show no fear of humans or if a coyote attacks a person, immediately contact your local police and the Division of Fish and Wildlife at 908-735-8793; outside of normal business hours call the DEP Hotline at 877-WARN-DEP.