Archetypal work of art: An artwork that epitomizes a genre of art.
Art genres: Artworks that share characteristic approaches to content, form, style, and design. Each of the four arts disciplines is associated with different genres.
Arts media: Artistic methods, processes, or means of expression (e.g., presentation mechanisms such as screen, print, auditory, or tactile modes) used to produce a work of art.
Art medium(s): Any material or technique used for expression in art. In art, "medium" refers to the physical substance used to create artwork. Types of materials include clay, pencil, paint, and others.
Artistic processes: For example, expressionism, abstractionism/nonobjectivism, realism, naturalism, impressionism, and others.
Balance: For example, in dance, complementary positions that are on or off the vertical, horizontal, or transverse axes.
Basic Literacy: A level of achievement that indicates a student meets or exceeds the K-5 arts standards. Basic Literacy is attained when a student can:
- Respond to artworks with empathy.
- Understand that artwork reflects historical, cultural, and aesthetic perspectives.
- Perform in all four arts disciplines at an age-appropriate level.
- Draw similarities within and across the arts disciplines.
Body patterning: For example, in dance, unilateral movement, contra-lateral movement, upper/lower body coordination, or standing or moving on two feet vs. one foot during movement patterns.
Characteristics of a well-made play: Inciting incident, confrontation, rising action, climax, dénouement, and resolution.
Choreographic structures: For example, AB, ABA, canon, call and response, narrative, rondo, palindrome, theme, variation, and others.
Competency: A level of achievement that indicates a student meets or exceeds the K-8 arts standards. Competency is attained when a student can:
- Respond to artworks with developing understanding, calling upon acquaintance with works of art from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
- Perceive artworks from structural, historical, cultural, and aesthetic perspectives.
- Perform in a chosen area of the arts with developing technical ability, as well as the ability to recognize and conceive solutions to artistic problems.
- Understand how various types of arts knowledge and skills are related within and across the arts disciplines.
Compound meter: Measures of music in which the upper numerator is divisible by three such as 6/8 or 9/8 time.
Consummate works of art: Expertly articulated concepts or renderings of artwork.
Discipline-specific arts terminology: Language used to talk about art that is specific to the arts discipline (dance, music, theatre, or visual art) in which it was created.
Ear training and listening skill: The development of sensitivity to relative pitch, rhythm, timbre, dynamics, form, and melody, and the application of sight singing/reading or playing techniques, diction/intonation, chord recognition, error detection, and related activities.
Effort Actions: "Effort actions," or more accurately "incomplete effort actions," specifically refers to nomenclature from Laban Movement Analysis-perhaps the most commonly employed international language of dance. The term refers to any of eight broad classifications or categories of movement: gliding, floating, dabbing, flicking, slashing, thrusting, pressing, and wringing. Each effort action has a specific relationship to the elements of dance (i.e., time, space, and energy) and is paired with another effort action (gliding & floating, dabbing & flicking, slashing & thrusting, pressing & wringing).
Elements of art: The compositional building blocks of visual art, including line, color, shape, form, texture, and space.
Elements of dance: The compositional building blocks of dance, including time, space, and energy.
Elements of music: The compositional building blocks of music, including texture, harmony, melody, and rhythm.
Elements of theatre: The compositional building blocks of theatre, including but not limited to plot, character, action, spectacle, and sound.
Exemplary works: Works representing genres of art that may be examined from structural, historical, and cultural perspectives.
Formalism: The concept that a work's artistic value is entirely determined by its form-the way it is made, its purely visual aspects, and its medium. The context for the work is of secondary importance. Formalism predominated Western art from the late 1800s to the 1960s.
Historical eras in the arts: Artworks that share distinct characteristics and common themes associated with a period of history.
Home tone: The first or key tone of any scale; the same as the tonic.
Kinesthetic awareness: Spatial sense.
Kinesthetic principles: Principles having to do with the physics of movement, such as work, force, velocity, and torque.
Locomotor and non-locomotor movements: Locomotor movements involve travel through space (e.g., walking, running, hopping, jumping, leaping, galloping, sliding, skipping), while non-locomotor movements are performed within a personal kinesphere and do not travel through space (e.g., axial turns).
Media Arts: For example, television, film, video, radio, and electronic media.
Mixed meter: A time signature in which each measure is divided into three or more parts, or two uneven parts, calling for the measures to be played with principles, and with subordinate metric accents causing the sensation of beats (e.g., 5/4 and 7/4 time, among others).
Movement affinities: The execution of dance phrases with relation to music. Dancers tend toward either lyricism (using the expressive quality of music through the full extension of the body following the accented beat), or bravura dancing (in which the dancer tends to accent the musical beat). Both are technically correct, but are used in different circumstances.
Musical families: The categorization of musical instruments according to shared physical properties, such as strings, percussion, brass, or woodwinds.
Music composition: Prescribed rules and forms used to create music, such as melodic line and basic chordal structures, many of which are embedded in electronic music notation programs, and which can apply equally to improvised and scored music.
New art media and methodologies: Artistic works that have a technological component, such as digital art, computer graphics, computer animation, virtual art, computer robotics, and others.
Orff instruments: Precursors to melodic musical instruments, such as hand drums, xylophones, metalliphones, wood blocks, triangles, and others.
Ostinato: A short melodic phrase persistently repeated by the same voice or instrument.
Physical and vocal skills: For example, articulation, breath control, projection, body alignment.
Principles of design: Balance, proportion, rhythm, emphasis, and unity.
Proficiency: A level of achievement that indicates a student meets or exceeds the K-12 arts standards. Proficiency is attained when a student can:
- Respond to artworks with insight and depth of understanding, calling upon informed acquaintance with exemplary works of art from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
- Develop and present basic analyses of artworks from structural, historical, cultural, and aesthetic perspectives, pointing to their impact on contemporary modes of expression.
- Perform in a chosen area of the arts with consistency, artistic nuance, and technical ability, defining and solving artistic problems with insight, reason, and technical proficiency.
- Relate various types of arts knowledge and skills within and across the arts disciplines, by mixing and matching competencies and understandings in art-making, history, culture, and analysis in any arts-related project.
Sensory recall: A technique actors commonly employ to heighten the believability of a character, which involves using sense memory to inform their choices.
Technical proficiency and artistry in dance performance: Works executed with clarity, musicality, and stylistic nuance that exhibit sound anatomical and kinesthetic principles.
Technical theatrical elements: Technical aspects of theatre, such as lighting, sets, properties, and sound.
Theatrical genres: Classifications of plays with common characteristics. For example, classical plays, post modern drama, commedia dell' arte, historical plays, restoration comedy, English renaissance revenge plays, and others.
Utilitarian and non-utilitarian art: Art may be functional (i.e., utilitarian) or decorative (i.e., non-utilitarian).
Visual communication: The sharing of ideas primarily through visual means-a concept that is commonly associated with two-dimensional images. Visual communication explores the notion that visual messages have power to inform, educate or persuade. The success of visual communication is often determined by measuring the audience's comprehension of the artist's intent, and is not based aesthetic or artistic preference. In the era of electronic communication, the importance of visual communication is heightened because visual displays help users understand the communication taking place.
Visual literacy: The ability to understand subject matter and the meaning of visual artworks within a given cultural context; the ability to communicate in a wide array of art media and express oneself in at least one visual discipline.
Vocal placement: The physical properties and basic anatomy of sound generated by placing the voice in different parts of the body, such as a head voice and chest voice.