Core Curriculum Content Standards

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NJ World Class Standards
Content Area: Science

Content Area

Science

Standard

5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

Strand

A. Properties of Matter:  All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia.

By the end of grade

Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

P

Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of the properties of matter.

5.2.P.A.1

Observe, manipulate, sort, and describe objects and materials (e.g., water, sand, clay, paint, glue, various types of blocks, collections of objects, simple household items that can be taken apart, or objects made of wood, metal, or cloth) in the classroom and outdoor environment based on size, shape, color, texture, and weight.

2

Living and nonliving things are made of parts and can be described in terms of the materials of which they are made and their physical properties.

5.2.2.A.1

Sort and describe objects based on the materials of which they are made and their physical properties.

2

Matter exists in several different states; the most commonly encountered are solids, liquids, and gases. Liquids take the shape of the part of the container they occupy. Solids retain their shape regardless of the container they occupy.

5.2.2.A.2

Identify common objects as solids, liquids, or gases.

4

Some objects are composed of a single substance; others are composed of more than one substance.

5.2.4.A.1

Identify objects that are composed of a single substance and those that are composed of more than one substance using simple tools found in the classroom.

4

Each state of matter has unique properties (e.g., gases can be compressed, while solids and liquids cannot; the shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers).

5.2.4.A.2

Plan and carry out an investigation to distinguish among solids, liquids, and gasses.

4

Objects and substances have properties, such as weight and volume, that can be measured using appropriate tools. Unknown substances can sometimes be identified by their properties.

5.2.4.A.3

Determine the weight and volume of common objects using appropriate tools.

4

Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity.

5.2.4.A.4

Categorize objects based on the ability to absorb or reflect light and conduct heat or electricity.

6

The volume of some objects can be determined using liquid (water) displacement.

5.2.6.A.1

Determine the volume of common objects using water displacement methods.

6

The density of an object can be determined from its volume and mass.

5.2.6.A.2

Calculate the density of objects or substances after determining volume and mass.

6

Pure substances have characteristic intrinsic properties, such as density, solubility, boiling point, and melting point, all of which are independent of the amount of the sample.

5.2.6.A.3

Determine the identity of an unknown substance using data about intrinsic properties.

8

All matter is made of atoms. Matter made of only one type of atom is called an element.

5.2.8.A.1

Explain that all matter is made of atoms, and give examples of common elements.

8

All substances are composed of one or more of approximately 100 elements.

5.2.8.A.2

Analyze and explain the implications of the statement “all substances are composed of elements.”

8

Properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by a model of matter as composed of tiny particles (atoms) in motion.

5.2.8.A.3

Use the kinetic molecular model to predict how solids, liquids, and gases would behave under various physical circumstances, such as heating or cooling.

8

The Periodic Table organizes the elements into families of elements with similar properties.

5.2.8.A.4

Predict the physical and chemical properties of elements based on their positions on the Periodic Table.

8

Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom. Compounds are substances that are chemically formed and have physical and chemical properties that differ from the reacting substances.

5.2.8.A.5

Identify unknown substances based on data regarding their physical and chemical properties.

8

Substances are classified according to their physical and chemical properties. Metals are a class of elements that exhibit physical properties, such as conductivity, and chemical properties, such as producing salts when combined with nonmetals.

5.2.8.A.6

Determine whether a substance is a metal or nonmetal through student-designed investigations.

8

Substances are classified according to their physical and chemical properties. Acids are a class of compounds that exhibit common chemical properties, including a sour taste, characteristic color changes with litmus and other acid/base indicators, and the tendency to react with bases to produce a salt and water.

5.2.8.A.7

Determine the relative acidity and reactivity of common acids, such as vinegar or cream of tartar, through a variety of student-designed investigations.

12

Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

5.2.12.A.1

Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.

12

Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged, and by the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.

5.2.12.A.2

Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

12

In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

5.2.12.A.3

Predict the placement of unknown elements on the Periodic Table based on their physical and chemical properties.

12

In a neutral atom, the positively charged nucleus is surrounded by the same number of negatively charged electrons. Atoms of an element whose nuclei have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.

5.2.12.A.4

Explain how the properties of isotopes, including half-lives, decay modes, and nuclear resonances, lead to useful applications of isotopes.

12

Solids, liquids, and gases may dissolve to form solutions. When combining a solute and solvent to prepare a solution, exceeding a particular concentration of solute will lead to precipitation of the solute from the solution. Dynamic equilibrium occurs in saturated solutions. Concentration of solutions can be calculated in terms of molarity, molality, and percent by mass.

5.2.12.A.5

Describe the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents.

12

Acids and bases are important in numerous chemical processes that occur around us, from industrial to biological processes, from the laboratory to the environment.

5.2.12.A.6

Relate the pH scale to the concentrations of various acids and bases.


 

Content Area

Science

Standard

5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

Strand

B. Changes in Matter:  Substances can undergo physical or chemical changes to form new substances. Each change involves energy.

By the end of grade

Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

P

Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of changes in matter.

5.2.P.B.1

Explore changes in liquids and solids when substances are combined, heated, or cooled (e.g., mix sand or clay with various amounts of water; mix different colors of tempera paints; freeze and melt water and other liquids).

2

Some properties of matter can change as a result of processes such as heating and cooling. Not all materials respond the same way to these processes.

5.2.2.B.1

Generate accurate data and organize arguments to show that not all substances respond the same way when heated or cooled, using common materials, such as shortening or candle wax.

4

Many substances can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling.

5.2.4.B.1

Predict and explain what happens when a common substance, such as shortening or candle wax, is heated to melting and then cooled to a solid.

6

When a new substance is made by combining two or more substances, it has properties that are different from the original substances.

5.2.6.B.1

Compare the properties of reactants with the properties of the products when two or more substances are combined and react chemically.

8

When substances undergo chemical change, the number and kinds of atoms in the reactants are the same as the number and kinds of atoms in the products. The mass of the reactants is the same as the mass of the products.

5.2.8.B.1

Explain, using an understanding of the concept of chemical change, why the mass of reactants and the mass of products remain constant.

8

Chemical changes can occur when two substances, elements, or compounds react and produce one or more different substances. The physical and chemical properties of the products are different from those of the reacting substances.

5.2.8.B.2

Compare and contrast the physical properties of reactants with products after a chemical reaction, such as those that occur during photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

12

An atom’s electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom interacts with other atoms. Chemical bonds are the interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions.

5.2.12.B.1

Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical bonds they tend to form.

12

A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons or hydrogen ions between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond.

5.2.12.B.2

Describe oxidation and reduction reactions, and give examples of oxidation and reduction reactions that have an impact on the environment, such as corrosion and the burning of fuel.

12

The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants using the mole concept.

5.2.12.B.3

Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.


 

Content Area

Science

Standard

5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

Strand

C. Forms of Energy:  Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable.

By the end of grade

Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

P

Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of forms of energy.

5.2.P.C.1

Investigate sound, heat, and light energy (e.g., the pitch and volume of sound made by commercially made and homemade instruments, looking for shadows on the playground over time and under different weather conditions) through one or more of the senses.

2

The Sun warms the land, air, and water.

5.2.2.C.1

Compare, citing evidence, the heating of different colored objects placed in full sunlight.

2

An object can be seen when light strikes it and is reflected to a viewer's eye. If there is no light, objects cannot be seen.

5.2.2.C.2

Apply a variety of strategies to collect evidence that validates the principle that if there is no light, objects cannot be seen.

2

When light strikes substances and objects through which it cannot pass, shadows result.

5.2.2.C.3

Present evidence that represents the relationship between a light source, solid object, and the resulting shadow.

4

Heat (thermal energy), electricity, light, and sound are forms of energy.

5.2.4.C.1

Compare various forms of energy as observed in everyday life and describe their applications.

4

Heat (thermal energy) results when substances burn, when certain kinds of materials rub against each other, and when electricity flows though wires. Metals are good conductors of heat (thermal energy) and electricity. Increasing the temperature of any substance requires the addition of energy.

5.2.4.C.2

Compare the flow of heat through metals and nonmetals by taking and analyzing measurements.

4

Energy can be transferred from one place to another. Heat energy is transferred from warmer things to colder things.

5.2.4.C.3

Draw and label diagrams showing several ways that energy can be transferred from one place to another.

4

Light travels in straight lines. When light travels from one substance to another (air and water), it changes direction.

5.2.4.C.4

Illustrate and explain what happens when light travels from air into water.

6

Light travels in a straight line until it interacts with an object or material. Light can be absorbed, redirected, bounced back, or allowed to pass through. The path of reflected or refracted light can be predicted.

5.2.6.C.1

Predict the path of reflected or refracted light using reflecting and refracting telescopes as examples.

6

Visible light from the Sun is made up of a mixture of all colors of light. To see an object, light emitted or reflected by that object must enter the eye.

5.2.6.C.2

Describe how to prisms can be used to demonstrate that visible light from the Sun is made up of different colors.

6

The transfer of thermal energy by conduction, convection, and radiation can produce large-scale events such as those seen in weather.

5.2.6.C.3

Relate the transfer of heat from oceans and land masses to the evolution of a hurricane.

8

A tiny fraction of the light energy from the Sun reaches Earth. Light energy from the Sun is Earth’s primary source of energy, heating Earth surfaces and providing the energy that results in wind, ocean currents, and storms.

5.2.8.C.1

Structure evidence to explain the relatively high frequency of tornadoes in “Tornado Alley.”

8

Energy is transferred from place to place. Light energy can be thought of as traveling in rays. Thermal energy travels via conduction and convection.

5.2.8.C.2

Model and explain current technologies used to capture solar energy for the purposes of converting it to electrical energy.

12

Gas particles move independently and are far apart relative to each other. The behavior of gases can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory. The kinetic molecular theory can be used to explain the relationship between pressure and volume, volume and temperature, pressure and temperature, and the number of particles in a gas sample. There is a natural tendency for a system to move in the direction of disorder or entropy.

5.2.12.C.1

Use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

12

Heating increases the energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the kinetic energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a pure solid increases the vibrational energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy of the molecules of a pure substance becomes great enough, the solid melts.

5.2.12.C.2

Account for any trends in the melting points and boiling points of various compounds.


 

Content Area

Science

Standard

5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

Strand

D. Energy Transfer and Conservation:  The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another.

By the end of grade

Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

2

Batteries supply energy to produce light, sound, or heat.

5.2.2.D.1

Predict and confirm the brightness of a light, the volume of sound, or the amount of heat when given the number of batteries, or the size of batteries.

4

Electrical circuits require a complete loop through conducting materials in which an electrical current can pass.

5.2.4.D.1

Repair an electric circuit by completing a closed loop that includes wires, a battery (or batteries), and at least one other electrical component to produce observable change.

6

The flow of current in an electric circuit depends upon the components of the circuit and their arrangement, such as in series or parallel. Electricity flowing through an electrical circuit produces magnetic effects in the wires.

5.2.6.D.1

Use simple circuits involving batteries and motors to compare and predict the current flow with different circuit arrangements.

8

When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer. As an object falls, its potential energy decreases as its speed, and consequently its kinetic energy, increases. While an object is falling, some of the object’s kinetic energy is transferred to the medium through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.

5.2.8.D.1

Relate the kinetic and potential energies of a roller coaster at various points on its path.

8

Nuclear reactions take place in the Sun. In plants, light energy from the Sun is transferred to oxygen and carbon compounds, which in combination, have chemical potential energy (photosynthesis).

5.2.8.D.2

Describe the flow of energy from the Sun to the fuel tank of an automobile.

12

The potential energy of an object on Earth’s surface is increased when the object’s position is changed from one closer to Earth’s surface to one farther from Earth’s surface.

5.2.12.D.1

Model the relationship between the height of an object and its potential energy.

12

The driving forces of chemical reactions are energy and entropy. Chemical reactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic).

5.2.12.D.2

Describe the potential commercial applications of exothermic and endothermic reactions.

12

Nuclear reactions (fission and fusion) convert very small amounts of matter into energy.

5.2.12.D.3

Describe the products and potential applications of fission and fusion reactions.

12

Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

5.2.12.D.4

Measure quantitatively the energy transferred between objects during a collision.

12

Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process that is significant in many systems, including biological, ecological, environmental, and geological systems. Chemical reactions occur at different rates. Factors such as temperature, mixing, concentration, particle size, and surface area affect the rates of chemical reactions.

5.2.12.D.5

Model the change in rate of a reaction by changing a factor.


 

Content Area

Science

Standard

5.2 Physical Science: All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

Strand

E. Forces and Motion:  It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces.

By the end of grade

Content Statement

CPI#

Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)

P

Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of motion.

5.2.P.E.1

Investigate how and why things move (e.g., slide blocks, balance structures, push structures over, use ramps to explore how far and how fast different objects move or roll).

2

Objects can move in many different ways (fast and slow, in a straight line, in a circular path, zigzag, and back and forth).

5.2.2.E.1

Investigate and model the various ways that inanimate objects can move.

2

A force is a push or a pull. Pushing or pulling can move an object. The speed an object moves is related to how strongly it is pushed or pulled. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment.

5.2.2.E.2

Predict an object’s relative speed, path, or how far it will travel using various forces and surfaces.

2

Some forces act by touching, while other forces can act without touching.

5.2.2.E.3

Distinguish a force that acts by direct contact with an object (e.g., by pushing or pulling) from a force that can act without direct contact (e.g., the attraction between a magnet and a steel paper clip).

4

Motion can be described as a change in position over a period of time.

5.2.4.E.1

Demonstrate through modeling that motion is a change in position over a period of time.

4

There is always a force involved when something starts moving or changes its speed or direction of motion. A greater force can make an object move faster and farther.

5.2.4.E.2

Identify the force that starts something moving or changes its speed or direction of motion.

4

Magnets can repel or attract other magnets, but they attract all matter made of iron. Magnets can make some things move without being touched.

5.2.4.E.3

Investigate and categorize materials based on their interaction with magnets.

4

Earth pulls down on all objects with a force called gravity. Weight is a measure of how strongly an object is pulled down toward the ground by gravity. With a few exceptions, objects fall to the ground no matter where they are on Earth.

5.2.4.E.4

Investigate, construct, and generalize rules for the effect that force of gravity has on balls of different sizes and weights.

6

An object’s position can be described by locating the object relative to other objects or a background. The description of an object’s motion from one observer’s view may be different from that reported from a different observer’s view.

5.2.6.E.1

Model and explain how the description of an object’s motion from one observer’s view may be different from a different observer’s view.

6

Magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act at a distance.

5.2.6.E.2

Describe the force between two magnets as the distance between them is changed.

6

Friction is a force that acts to slow or stop the motion of objects.

5.2.6.E.3

Demonstrate and explain the frictional force acting on an object with the use of a physical model.

6

Sinking and floating can be predicted using forces that depend on the relative densities of objects and materials.

5.2.6.E.4

Predict if an object will sink or float using evidence and reasoning.

8

An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far.

5.2.8.E.1

Calculate the speed of an object when given distance and time.

8

Forces have magnitude and direction. Forces can be added. The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion at constant velocity will continue at the same velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force.

5.2.8.E.2

Compare the motion of an object acted on by balanced forces with the motion of an object acted on by unbalanced forces in a given specific scenario.

12

The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

5.2.12.E.1

Compare the calculated and measured speed, average speed, and acceleration of an object in motion, and account for differences that may exist between calculated and measured values.

12

Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational).

5.2.12.E.2

Compare the translational and rotational motions of a thrown object and potential applications of this understanding.

12

The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

5.2.12.E.3

Create simple models to demonstrate the benefits of seatbelts using Newton's first law of motion.

12

The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force, and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force.

5.2.12.E.4

Measure and describe the relationship between the force acting on an object and the resulting acceleration.