Core Curriculum Content Standards

CCCS History | CCCS Home | Social Studies | Search:
NJ World Class Standards
Content Area: Social Studies
Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Strand A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
P
Citizenship begins with becoming a contributing member of the classroom community.
6.1.P.A.1 Demonstrate an understanding of rules by following most classroom routines.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.P.A.2 Demonstrate responsibility by initiating simple classroom tasks and jobs.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.P.A.3 Demonstrate appropriate behavior when collaborating with others.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
4
Rules and laws are developed to protect people’s rights and the security and welfare of society.
6.1.4.A.1 Explain how rules and laws created by community, state, and national governments protect the rights of people, help resolve conflicts, and promote the common good.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
The United States Constitution and Bill of Rights guarantee certain fundamental rights for citizens.
6.1.4.A.2 Explain how fundamental rights guaranteed by the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights (i.e., freedom of expression, freedom of religion, the right to vote, and the right to due process) contribute to the continuation and improvement of American democracy.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
American constitutional government is based on principles of limited government, shared authority, fairness, and equality.
6.1.4.A.3 Determine how “fairness,” “equality,” and the “ common good” have influenced change at the local and national levels of United States government.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
There are different branches within the United States government, each with its own structure, leaders, and processes, and each designed to address specific issues and concerns.
6.1.4.A.4 Explain how the United States government is organized and how the United States Constitution defines and limits the power of government.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.A.5 Distinguish the roles and responsibilities of the three branches of the national government.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.A.6 Explain how national and state governments share power in the federal system of government.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
In a representative democracy, individuals elect representatives to act on the behalf of the people.
6.1.4.A.7 Explain how the United States functions as a representative democracy, and describe the roles of elected representatives and how they interact with citizens at local, state, and national levels.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.A.8 Compare and contrast how government functions at the community, county, state, and national levels, the services provided, and the impact of policy decisions made at each level.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
The examination of individual experiences, historical narratives, and events promotes an understanding of individual and community responses to the violation of fundamental rights.
6.1.4.A.9 Compare and contrast responses of individuals and groups, past and present, to violations of fundamental rights.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.A.10 Describe how the actions of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights leaders served as catalysts for social change and inspired social activism in subsequent generations.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
The United States democratic system requires active participation of its citizens.
6.1.4.A.11 Explain how the fundamental rights of the individual and the common good of the country depend upon all citizens exercising their civic responsibilities at the community, state, national, and global levels.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.A.12 Explain the process of creating change at the local, state, or national level.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Immigrants can become and obtain the rights of American citizens.
6.1.4.A.13 Describe the process by which immigrants become United States citizens.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
The world is comprised of nations that are similar to and different from the United States.
6.1.4.A.14 Describe how the world is divided into many nations that have their own governments, languages, customs, and laws.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
In an interconnected world, it important to consider different cultural perspectives before proposing solutions to local, state, national, and global challenges.
6.1.4.A.15 Explain how and why it is important that people from diverse cultures collaborate to find solutions to community, state, national, and global challenges.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
In an interconnected world, increased collaboration is needed by individuals, groups, and nations to solve global problems.
6.1.4.A.16 Explore how national and international leaders, businesses, and global organizations promote human rights and provide aid to individuals and nations in need.                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Strand B. Geography, People, and the Environment
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
P
Everyone is part of a larger neighborhood and community.
6.1.P.B.1 Develop an awareness of the physical features of the neighborhood/community.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.P.B.2 Identify, discuss, and role-play the duties of a range of community workers.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
4
Spatial thinking and geographic tools can be used to describe and analyze the spatial patterns and organization of people, places, and environments on Earth.
6.1.4.B.1 Compare and contrast information that can be found on different types of maps, and determine when the information may be useful.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.B.2 Use physical and political maps to explain how the location and spatial relationship of places in New Jersey, the United States, and other areas, worldwide, have contributed to cultural diffusion and economic interdependence.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.B.3 Explain how and when it is important to use digital geographic tools, political maps, and globes to measure distances and to determine time zones and locations using latitude and longitude.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Places are jointly characterized by their physical and human properties.
6.1.4.B.4 Describe how landforms, climate and weather, and availability of resources have impacted where and how people live and work in different regions of New Jersey and the United States.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
The physical environment can both accommodate and be endangered by human activities.
6.1.4.B.5 Describe how human interaction impacts the environment in New Jersey and the United States.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Regions form and change as a result of unique physical/ecological conditions, economies, and cultures.
6.1.4.B.6 Compare and contrast characteristics of regions in the United States based on culture, economics, politics, and physical environment to understand the concept of regionalism.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Patterns of settlement across Earth’s surface differ markedly from region to region, place to place, and time to time.
6.1.4.B.7 Explain why some locations in New Jersey and the United States are more suited for settlement than others.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.B.8 Compare ways people choose to use and divide natural resources.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Advancements in science and technology can have unintended consequences that impact individuals and/or societies.
6.1.4.B.9 Relate advances in science and technology to environmental concerns, and to actions taken to address them.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Urban areas, worldwide, share common physical characteristics, but may also have cultural differences.
6.1.4.B.10 Identify the major cities in New Jersey, the United States, and major world regions, and explain how maps, globes, and demographic tools can be used to understand tangible and intangible cultural differences.                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Strand C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
4
People make decisions based on their needs, wants, and the availability of resources.
6.1.4.C.1 Apply opportunity cost to evaluate individuals’ decisions, including ones made in their communities.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.2 Distinguish between needs and wants and explain how scarcity and choice influence decisions made by individuals, communities, and nations.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Economics is a driving force for the occurrence of various events and phenomena in societies.
6.1.4.C.3 Explain why incentives vary between and among producers and consumers.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.4 Describe how supply and demand influence price and output of products.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.5 Explain the role of specialization in the production and exchange of goods and services.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Interaction among various institutions in the local, national, and global economies influence policymaking and societal outcomes.
6.1.4.C.6 Describe the role and relationship among households, businesses, laborers, and governments within the economic system.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.7 Explain how the availability of private and public goods and services is influenced by the global market and government.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.8 Illustrate how production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services are interrelated and are affected by the global market and events in the world community.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Availability of resources affects economic outcomes.
6.1.4.C.9 Compare and contrast how access to and use of resources affects people across the world differently.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Understanding of financial instruments and outcomes assists citizens in making sound decisions about money, savings, spending, and investment.
6.1.4.C.10 Explain the role of money, savings, debt, and investment in individuals’ lives.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.11 Recognize the importance of setting long-term goals when making financial decisions within the community.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Creativity and innovation affect lifestyle, access to information, and the creation of new products and services.
6.1.4.C.12 Evaluate the impact of ideas, inventions, and other contributions of prominent figures who lived New Jersey.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.13 Determine the qualities of entrepreneurs in a capitalistic society.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Economic opportunities in New Jersey and other states are related to the availability of resources and technology.
6.1.4.C.14 Compare different regions of New Jersey to determine the role that geography, natural resources, climate, transportation, technology, and/or the labor force have played in economic opportunities.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.15 Describe how the development of different transportation systems impacted the economies of New Jersey and the United States.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Creativity and innovation have led to improvements in lifestyle, access to information, and the creation of new products.
6.1.4.C.16 Explain how creativity and innovation resulted in scientific achievement and inventions in many cultures during different historical periods.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.17 Determine the role of science and technology in the transition from an agricultural society to an industrial society, and then to the information age.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.C.18 Explain how the development of communications systems has led to increased collaboration and the spread of ideas throughout the United States and the world.                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Strand D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
P
Individuals and families have unique characteristics.
6.1.P.D.1 Describe characteristics of oneself, one’s family, and others.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.P.D.2 Demonstrate an understanding of family roles and traditions.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
There are many different cultures within the classroom and community.
6.1.P.D.3 Express individuality and cultural diversity (e.g., through dramatic play).                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.P.D.4 Learn about and respect other cultures within the classroom and community.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
4
Immigrants come to New Jersey and the United States for various reasons and have a major impact on the state and the nation.
6.1.4.D.1 Determine the impact of European colonization on Native American populations, including the Lenni Lenape of New Jersey.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.D.2 Summarize reasons why various groups, voluntarily and involuntarily, immigrated to New Jersey and America, and describe the challenges they encountered.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.D.3 Evaluate the impact of voluntary and involuntary immigration on America’s growth as a nation, historically and today.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Key historical events, documents, and individuals led to the development of our nation.
6.1.4.D.4 Explain how key events led to the creation of the United States and the state of New Jersey.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.D.5 Relate key historical documents (i.e., the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights) to present day government and citizenship.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.D.6 Describe the civic leadership qualities and historical contributions of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin toward the development of the United States government.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.D.7 Explain the role Governor William Livingston played in the development of New Jersey government.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.D.8 Determine the significance of New Jersey’s role in the American Revolution.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.D.9 Explain the impact of trans-Atlantic slavery on New Jersey, the nation, and individuals.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Personal, family, and community history is a source of information for individuals about the people and places around them.
6.1.4.D.10 Describe how the influence of Native American groups, including the Lenni Lenape culture, is manifested in different regions of New Jersey.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.D.11 Determine how local and state communities have changed over time, and explain the reasons for changes.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
The study of American folklore and popular historical figures enables Americans with diverse cultural backgrounds to feel connected to a national heritage.
6.1.4.D.12 Explain how folklore and the actions of famous historical and fictional characters from New Jersey and other regions of the United States contributed to the American national heritage.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Cultures include traditions, popular beliefs, and commonly held values, ideas, and assumptions that are generally accepted by a particular group of people.
6.1.4.D.13 Describe how culture is expressed through and influenced by the behavior of people.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
American culture, based on specific traditions and values, has been influenced by the behaviors of different cultural groups living in the United States.
6.1.4.D.14 Trace how the American identity evolved over time.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Cultures struggle to maintain traditions in a changing society.
6.1.4.D.15 Explain how various cultural groups have dealt with the conflict between maintaining traditional beliefs and practices and adopting new beliefs and practices.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Prejudice and discrimination can be obstacles to understanding other cultures.
6.1.4.D.16 Describe how stereotyping and prejudice can lead to conflict, using examples from the past and present.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Historical symbols and the ideas and events they represent play a role in understanding and evaluating our history.
6.1.4.D.17 Explain the role of historical symbols, monuments, and holidays and how they affect the American identity.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
The cultures with which an individual or group identifies change and evolve in response to interactions with other groups and/or in response to needs or concerns.
6.1.4.D.18 Explain how an individual’s beliefs, values, and traditions may reflect more than one culture.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
People view and interpret events differently because of the times in which they live, the experiences they have had, the perspectives held by their cultures, and their individual points of view.
6.1.4.D.19 Explain how experiences and events may be interpreted differently by people with different cultural or individual perspectives.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
6.1.4.D.20 Describe why it is important to understand the perspectives of other cultures in an interconnected world.                                                                                                                                                                                                      


Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
1. Three Worlds Meet

Indigenous societies in the Western Hemisphere migrated and changed in response to the physical environment and due to their interactions with Europeans.

European exploration expanded global economic and cultural exchange into the Western Hemisphere.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.1.a Compare and contrast forms of governance, belief systems, and family structures among African, European, and Native American groups.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.1.a Describe migration and settlement patterns of Native American groups, and explain how these patterns affected interactions in different regions of the Western Hemisphere.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.1.b Analyze the world in spatial terms, using historical maps to determine what led to the exploration of new water and land routes.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.1.a Evaluate the impact of science, religion, and technology innovations on European exploration.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.1.b Explain why individuals and societies trade, how trade functions, and the role of trade during this period.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.1.a Compare and contrast gender roles, religion, values, cultural practices, and political systems of Native American groups.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.1.b Explain how interactions among African, European, and Native American groups began a cultural transformation.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.1.c Evaluate the impact of the Colombian Exchange on ecology, agriculture, and culture from different perspectives.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
2. Colonization and Settlement

The colonists adapted ideas from their European heritage and from Native American groups to develop new political and religious institutions and economic systems.

The slave labor system and the loss of Native American lives had a lasting impact on the development of the United States and American culture.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.2.a Determine the roles of religious freedom and participatory government in various North American colonies.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.2.b Explain how and why early government structures developed, and determine the impact of these early structures on the evolution of American politics and institutions.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.2.c Explain how race, gender, and status affected social, economic, and political opportunities during Colonial times.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.2.a Determine factors that impacted emigration, settlement patterns, and regional identities of the colonies.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.2.b Compare and contrast how the search for natural resources resulted in conflict and cooperation among European colonists and Native American groups in the New World.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.2.a Relate slavery and indentured servitude to Colonial labor systems.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.2.b Explain the system of mercantilism and its impact on the economies of the colonies and European countries.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.2.c Analyze the impact of triangular trade on multiple nations and groups.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.2.a Analyze the power struggle among European countries, and determine its impact on people living in Europe and the Americas.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.2.b Compare and contrast the voluntary and involuntary migratory experiences of different groups of people, and explain why their experiences differed.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
3. Revolution and the New Nation

Disputes over political authority and economic issues contributed to a movement for independence in the colonies.

The fundamental principles of the United States Constitution serve as the foundation of the United States government today
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.3.a Examine the ideals found in the Declaration of Independence, and assess the extent to which they were fulfilled for women, African Americans, and Native Americans during this time period.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.b Evaluate the effectiveness of the fundamental principles of the Constitution (i.e., consent of the governed, rule of law, federalism, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, and individual rights) in establishing a federal government that allows for growth and change over time.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.c Determine the role that compromise played in the creation and adoption of the Constitution and Bill of Rights.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.d Compare and contrast the Articles of Confederation and the UNITED STATES Constitution in terms of the decision-making powers of national government.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.e Determine why the Alien and Sedition Acts were enacted and whether they undermined civil liberties.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.f Explain how political parties were formed and continue to be shaped by differing perspectives regarding the role and power of federal government.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.g Evaluate the impact of the Constitution and Bill of Rights on current day issues.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.3.a Assess how conflicts and alliances among European countries and Native American groups impacted the expansion of the American colonies.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.3.b Determine the extent to which the geography of the United States influenced the debate on representation in Congress and federalism by examining the New Jersey and Virginia plans.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.3.c Use maps and other geographic tools to evaluate the impact of geography on the execution and outcome of the American Revolutionary War.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.3.d Explain why New Jersey’s location played an integral role in the American Revolution.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.3.a Explain how taxes and government regulation can affect economic opportunities, and assess the impact of these on relations between Britain and its North American colonies.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.3.b Summarize the effect of inflation and debt on the American people and the response of state and national governments during this time.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.3.c Evaluate the impact of the cotton gin and other innovations on the institution of slavery and on the economic and political development of the country.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.3.a Explain how the consequences of the Seven Years War, changes in British policies toward American colonies, and responses by various groups and individuals in the North American colonies led to the American Revolution.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.b Explain why the Declaration of Independence was written and how its key principles evolved to become unifying ideas of American democracy.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.c Analyze the impact of George Washington as general of the American revolutionary forces and as the first president of the United States.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.d Analyze how prominent individuals and other nations contributed to the causes, execution, and outcomes of the American Revolution.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.e Examine the roles and perspectives of various socioeconomic groups (e.g., rural farmers, urban craftsmen, northern merchants, and southern planters), African Americans, Native Americans, and women during the American Revolution, and determine how these groups were impacted by the war.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.f Analyze from multiple perspectives how the terms of the Treaty of Paris affected United States relations with Native Americans and with European powers that had territories in North America.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.g Evaluate the extent to which the leadership and decisions of early administrations of the national government met the goals established in the Preamble of the Constitution.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
4. Expansion and Reform

Westward movement, industrial growth, increased immigration, the expansion of slavery, and the development of transportation systems increased regional tensions.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.4.a Explain the changes in America’s relationships with other nations by analyzing policies, treaties, tariffs, and agreements.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.4.b Analyze how the concept of Manifest Destiny influenced the acquisition of land through annexation, diplomacy, and war.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.4.c Assess the extent to which voting rights were expanded during the Jacksonian period.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.4.a Assess the impact of the Louisiana Purchase and western exploration on the expansion and economic development of the United States.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.4.b Map territorial expansion and settlement, as well as the locations of conflicts with and removal of Native Americans.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.4.a Analyze the debates involving the National Bank, uniform currency, and tariffs, and determine the extent to which each of these economic tools met the economic challenges facing the new nation.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.4.b Explain how major technological developments revolutionized land and water transportation, as well as the economy, in New Jersey and nation.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.4.c Analyze how technological innovations affected the status and social class of different groups of people, and explain the outcomes that resulted.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.4.a Analyze the push-pull factors that led to increases in immigration, and explain why ethnic and cultural conflicts resulted.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.4.b Explore efforts to reform education, women’s rights, slavery, and other issues during the Antebellum period.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.4.c Explain the growing resistance to slavery and New Jersey’s role in the Underground Railroad.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
5. Civil War and Reconstruction

The Civil War resulted from complex regional differences involving political, economic, and social issues, as well as different views on slavery.

The Civil War and Reconstruction had a lasting impact on the development of the United States.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.5.a Explain how and why the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address continue to impact American life.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.5.b Compare and contrast the approaches of Congress and Presidents Lincoln and Johnson toward the reconstruction of the South.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.5.a Determine the role of geography, natural resources, demographics, transportation, and technology in the progress and outcome of the Civil War.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.5.a Assess the human and material costs of the Civil War in the North and South.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.5.b Analyze the economic impact of Reconstruction on the South from different perspectives.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.5.a Prioritize the causes and events that led to the Civil War from different perspectives.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.5.b Analyze critical events and battles of the Civil War and determine how they contributed to the final outcome of the war.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.5.c Examine the roles of women, African Americans, and Native Americans in the Civil War.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.5.d Analyze the effectiveness of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the United States Constitution from multiple perspectives.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Grade Level By the end of grade 12
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
1. Colonization and Settlement

North American Colonial societies adapted European governmental, economic, and cultural institutions and ideologies to meet their needs in the New World.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.12.A.1.a Explain how British North American colonies adapted the British governance structure to fit their ideas of individual rights, economic growth, and participatory government.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.1.b Analyze how gender, property ownership, religion, and legal status affected political rights.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.12.B.1.a Relate regional geographic variations (e.g., climate, soil conditions, and other natural resources) to economic development in the New World.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.12.C.1.a Explain how economic ideas and the practices of mercantilism and capitalism conflicted during this time period.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.C.1.b Determine the extent to which natural resources, labor systems (i.e., the use of indentured servants, African slaves, and immigrant labor), and entrepreneurship contributed to economic development in the American colonies.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.12.D.1.a Explain the consequences to Native American groups of the loss of their land and people.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
Grade Level By the end of grade 12
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
2. Revolution and the New Nation

The war for independence was the result of growing ideological, political, geographic, economic, and religious tensions resulting from Britain’s centralization policies and practices.

The United States Constitution and Bill of Rights were designed to provide a framework for the American system of government, while also protecting individual rights.

Debates about individual rights, states’ rights, and federal power shaped the development of the political institutions and practices of the new Republic.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.12.A.2.a Analyze the intellectual origins of the major ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.2.b Evaluate the importance of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights to the spread of democracy around the world.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.2.c Compare and contrast state constitutions, including New Jersey’s 1776 constitution, with the United States Constitution, and determine their impact on the development of American constitutional government.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.2.d Compare and contrast the arguments of Federalists and Anti-Federalists during the ratification debates, and assess their continuing relevance.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.2.e Explain how judicial review made the Supreme Court an influential branch of government, and assess the continuing impact of the Supreme Court today.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.2.f Examine the emergence of early political parties and their views on centralized government and foreign affairs, and compare these positions with those of today’s political parties.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.12.B.2.a Analyze how the United States has attempted to account for regional differences while also striving to create an American identity.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.B.2.b Evaluate the effectiveness of the Northwest Ordinance in resolving disputes over Western lands and the expansion of slavery.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.12.C.2.a Analyze the problems of financing the American Revolutionary War and dealing with wartime inflation and profiteering.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.C.2.b Explain the effects of inflation, debt, and attempts by new state and national governments to rebuild the economy by addressing issues of foreign and internal trade, banking, and taxation.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.12.D.2.a Analyze contributions and perspectives of African Americans, Native Americans, and women during the American Revolution.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.D.2.b Explain why American ideals put forth in the Constitution (i.e., due process, rule of law, and individual rights) have been denied to different groups of people throughout time.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.D.2.c Relate events in Europe to the development of American trade and American foreign and domestic policies.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.D.2.d Analyze arguments for new women’s roles and rights, and explain why 18th-century society limited women’s aspirations.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.D.2.e Determine the impact of African American leaders and institutions in shaping free Black communities in the North.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Grade Level By the end of grade 12
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
3. Expansion and Reform

Multiple political, social, and economic factors caused American territorial expansion.

The rapid expansion and transformation of the American economy contributed to regional tensions, social reform, political compromises, and an expansion of democratic practices.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.12.A.3.a Assess the influence of Manifest Destiny on foreign policy during different time periods in American history.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.3.b Determine the extent to which America’s foreign policy (i.e., Tripoli pirates, the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, the Monroe Doctrine, the War with Mexico, and Native American removal) was influenced by perceived national interest.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.3.c Assess the role of geopolitics in the development of American foreign relations during this period.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.3.d Describe how the Supreme Court increased the power of the national government and promoted national economic growth during this era.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.3.e Judge the fairness of government treaties, policies, and actions that resulted in Native American migration and removal.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.3.f Compare and contrast the successes and failures of political (i.e., the 1844 State Constitution) and social (i.e., abolition, women’s rights, and temperance) reform movements in New Jersey and the nation during the Antebellum period.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.3.g Determine the extent to which state and local issues, the press, the rise of interest-group politics, and the rise of party politics impacted the development of democratic institutions and practices.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.3.h Analyze the various rationales provided as a justification for slavery.                                                                                                                          
6.1.12.A.3.i Relate the impact of the Supreme Court decision regarding the Amistad to the antislavery movement.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.12.B.3.a Assess the impact of Western settlement on the expansion of United States political boundaries.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.12.C.3.a Analyze how technological developments transformed the economy, created international markets, and affected the environment in New Jersey and the nation.