Since 1996, New Jersey ’s age-adjusted death rate has been below that of the U.S. as a whole. In 2003, the U.S. age-adjusted death rate was 831.2 per 100,000 population, an all-time low. From 1993 to 2003, New Jersey ’s age-adjusted death rate declined 14.4%, while the U.S. rate declined 10.2% (Table DT1 and Figure DT1).
On average there were 201 deaths of New Jersey residents each day in 2003. Death rates were highest in winter and lowest in summer. More deaths occurred on Thursdays than on any other day (204, on average) and Sundays had the fewest deaths (196, on average) (Table DS1).
Death rates decreased for all age groups over the past decade. For residents under the age of 15 and between 25 and 44 years, death rates declined by one-third. For those aged 45-64 years, rates decreased by one-fifth. Other age groups (15-24 and 65+), experienced less dramatic declines (Table DT2 and Figures DT2-8).
For every age group, death rates were higher for males than for females. The greatest difference (171%) was in the 15-24 year age group: 97.7 deaths per 100,000 population for males versus 36.0 for females. White and Black males had higher age-specific death rates than females for every age group, but the same was not true for Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders. Hispanic females aged 5-14 and 85+ had higher death rates than their male counterparts. Asian and Pacific Islander females under age 15 had higher rates than males under age 15 years (Table DS3).
Of the 15 counties for which rates could be calculated, Monmouth County had the lowest death rate (31.4 per 100,000 population) and Cumberland had the highest (112.2) for those aged 15 years and under. Among the 16 counties for which rates could be calculated, Bergen had the lowest death rate (43.7) and Cumberland had the highest (113.3) among residents aged 15-24 years. Death rates for residents aged 25-44 years ranged from 74.4 in Somerset County to 247.8 in Essex County . The lowest death rate for residents 45-64 years old was in Somerset County (331.2) and the highest was in Cumberland County (878.1). Death rates for residents aged 65-84 years ranged from 2,874.3 in Hunterdon County to 4,514.3 in Gloucester County . Hudson County had the lowest death rate among those aged 85 and over (12,553.4) and Gloucester County had the highest (18,522.8) (Table DC2 and Figures DC2-5).
Race/ethnicity and nativity
There were 58,736 deaths (80% of all deaths) among Whites, 9,428 (13%) among Blacks, 3,358 (5%) among Hispanics, and 1,060 (1.4%) among Asians/Pacific Islanders in 2003. Among Hispanics, 1,546 (46%) were of Puerto Rican ancestry, 957 (28%) were Central or South American, 636 (19%) were Cuban, and 134 (4%) were Mexican. Among Asians and Pacific Islanders, 364 (34%) were of Indian ancestry, 217 (20%) were Filipino, 179 (17%) were Chinese, and 124 (12%) were Korean (Tables DS4 and DS5).
In 2003, 81% of decedents were born in the United States , 1.6% were born in Puerto Rico , and 16% were born elsewhere. More than 85% of Whites and Blacks were native-born, as compared with only 8% of Asians and Pacific Islanders. Fifteen percent of Hispanic decedents were native-born, 34% were born in Puerto Rico , and 50% were foreign-born (Table DS6 and Figure DS3).
From 1993 to 2003, age-adjusted death rates declined among all major race/ethnicity groups in New Jersey . The changes were greatest among Blacks and Whites. The rate declined by 20% for Blacks and 13% for Whites, but only 5% for Asians and Pacific Islanders and 0.3% for Hispanics. In 2003, age-adjusted death rates were 779.9 for Whites, 1,059.3 for Blacks, 501.7 for Hispanics, and 355.2 for Asians and Pacific Islanders per 100,000 population (Table DT3 and Figure DT10).
The relatively low age-adjusted death rates for Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders are believed to be due to several factors including data artifact, migration, and lifestyle. A 1999 study by the National Center for Health Statistics found that, nationally, underreporting of Hispanic origin and Asian/Pacific Islander race on death certificates was approximately 7% and 13%, respectively (Rosenberg, 1999). A study done in 2001 by New Jersey’s Center for Health Statistics using a Spanish surname list developed by the U.S. Census Bureau (Word, 1996) estimated New Jersey’s underreporting of Hispanics to be approximately 8.4% for 1994-1998 data (Baron, 2001). An attempt to estimate the underreporting of Asian/Pacific Islander race on New Jersey death certificates using a surname list was unsuccessful. Other studies suggest there is age misreporting on death certificates, particularly among those aged 65 and over, and that misreporting is more significant among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic Whites (Elo, 2004). Selective in- and out-migration, also known as the “healthy migrant effect” and the “salmon-bias effect,” may also contribute to the Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander mortality advantages, since a relatively high proportion of those living in New Jersey are foreign-born (Singh, 2001, Palloni, 2004). Finally, behavioral and cultural factors such as smoking, alcohol use, diet, and family support may result in lower mortality rates among immigrants and first generation citizens, the majority of whom are Hispanic or Asian/Pacific Islander (Singh, 2001).
Age-adjusted death rates for Whites ranged from a low of 674.6 in Hunterdon County to a high of 975.5 in Cumberland County . Among the 18 counties with a sufficient number of deaths to calculate a reliable rate, age-adjusted death rates among Blacks ranged from 776.6 in Bergen to 1,279.8 in Passaic . Sixteen counties had reliable age-adjusted death rates for Hispanics and rates ranged from 288.6 in Bergen to 900.4 in Cumberland . In the 13 counties with reliable figures, age-adjusted death rates for Asians and Pacific Islanders ranged from 324.0 in Middlesex to 504.1 in Atlantic County (Table DC3).
Age-adjusted death rates among males declined 19% from 1993 to 2003, while rates among females only decreased 11%. However, in 2003, the rate for males was still 40% higher than the rate for females: 943.1 versus 677.6, respectively (Table DT4 and Figure DT11). The sex-difference was slightly greater among Blacks where age-adjusted death rates were 1,316.2 among males and 876.8 among females, a 50% difference. The difference was 43% for Hispanics (598.8 vs. 419.1), 38% for Whites (926.1 vs. 670.2), and 36% for Asians and Pacific Islanders (418.7 vs. 307.2) (Table DS2 and Figure DS2).
Between 2000 and 2003, life expectancy at birth increased 1.1 years to 78.5 years. While it increased 1.1 years for Whites (to 79.0) and 0.9 years for Asians/Pacific Islanders (to 86.3), it increased 2.3 years for Blacks (to 72.9) and 2.0 years for Hispanics (to 83.6). Life expectancy for males rose 1.4 years to 75.9 and for females rose 0.8 years to 80.8 (Table DT5 and Figure DT12). Among all race/ethnicity/sex groups, life expectancy ranged from 69.1 years for Black males to 87.7 years for Asian/Pacific Islander females (Table DS7 and Figure DS4).
PLACE OF DEATH
An increasing proportion of deaths took place in residential settings. Between 1993 and 2003, the number of deaths to inpatients declined 19%, deaths in outpatient/emergency departments (E.D.) decreased 14%, and deaths “on arrival” (DOA) decreased 57%, yet deaths in nursing homes increased 90% and deaths at home increased 10% (Table DT6). In 2003, 45% of deaths occurred to inpatients, 24% occurred at the decedent’s residence, 19% occurred in nursing homes, 6% occurred as outpatients or in a hospital E.D., and 1% were DOA. The cause of death affects place of death in some cases. Notably, 84% of septicemia deaths occurred to inpatients, 38% of cancer deaths occurred at home, and 63% of deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease occurred in nursing homes. Among deaths due to unintentional injury, 17% occurred as outpatients or in an E.D., 5% were DOA, and 23% occurred in some other place such as the location of the accident (Table DS8).
DISPOSITION OF DECEDENTS
The proportion of decedents who were buried decreased 13% between 1993 and 2003, while the proportion cremated increased 46% and the share entombed increased 36%. In 2003, 46,805 (62%) decedents were buried, 18,926 (26%) were cremated, and 5,426 (7%) were entombed (Table DT7). Disposition varied widely by race/ethnicity. Over two-thirds of Blacks (79%), Koreans (74%), Puerto Ricans (78%), and Mexicans (78%) were buried. More than two-thirds of Indians (74%) and Japanese (67%) were cremated. Twenty percent of Cubans and 15% of Filipinos were entombed (Table DS9 and Figure DS5).
LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH
The ten leading causes of death in 2003 were the same as in 1998-2002 with some changes in rank within the top ten: heart disease (21,801 deaths), cancer (17,551), stroke (3,914), chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRD) (2,890), diabetes (2,470), unintentional injuries (2,285), septicemia (1,887), influenza and pneumonia (1,802), kidney diseases (1,680), and Alzheimer’s disease (1,626) (Tables DT8 and DS10 and Figure DS6). On an average day, there were 201 deaths: 60 due to heart disease, 48 cancer, 11 stroke, 8 CLRD, 7 diabetes, 6 unintentional injuries, 5 septicemia, 5 influenza/pneumonia, 5 kidney disease, 4 Alzheimer’s disease, and 42 due to other causes (Figure DS7).
The statewide age-adjusted death rate due to heart disease was 232.2 in 2003. County rates ranged from 170.7 in Hunterdon to 299.5 in Salem . For cancer, the statewide rate was 191.1 and county rates ranged from 168.0 in Bergen to 250.5 in Gloucester . The age-adjusted stroke death rate for New Jersey was 41.6. Hunterdon County ’s rate of 35.2 was the lowest and Cumberland ’s rate of 57.0 was the highest. The statewide age-adjusted CLRD death rate was 31.2 and rates ranged from 22.0 in Bergen to 44.2 in Gloucester County (Table DC4 ).
Infant deaths (deaths under 1 year of age) are reported and discussed in a separate chapter. The leading causes of death of residents aged 1-4 years in 2003 were the same as in 2002: unintentional injuries (28 deaths) and congenital anomalies (10 deaths). These two causes accounted for more than one-third of deaths in the age group (Table DT9).
Among residents 5-14 years old, the leading causes of death remained unintentional injuries (43 deaths) and cancer (27 deaths). Nearly half of the deaths in this age group were due to those two causes. More than half of the deaths due to unintentional injuries were motor vehicle-related (Table DT10).
In 2003, the leading causes of death among residents aged 15-24 years were unintentional injuries (263 deaths), homicide (127), suicide (55), cancer (46), and heart disease (31) (Table DS10). Nearly two-thirds of the deaths due to unintentional injury were motor-vehicle related. While death rates for the other four leading causes displayed no clear trend from 1994-2003, the death rate for suicide among 15-24 year olds declined fairly steadily and was 30% lower in 2003 than in 1994 (Table DT11 and Figure DT14).
Among residents aged 25-44 years, the leading causes of death were unintentional injuries (666 deaths), cancer (565), heart disease (377), HIV disease (271), suicide (191), and homicide (184) (Table DS10). Nearly half of the deaths due to unintentional injuries were drug overdoses and nearly one-third were motor vehicle-related (Table DS32). While 2003 death rates for unintentional injuries, cancer, heart disease, and suicide were all a moderate 11-21% lower than they were in 1994, the death rate due to HIV disease declined steadily and was 85% lower than the rate in 1994, when it was the leading cause of death in the age group (Table DT12 and Figure DT15).
Cancer (4,109 deaths), heart disease (2,544), unintentional injuries (535), diabetes (517), and stroke (415) were the leading causes of death for residents aged 45-64 years in 2003 (Table DS10). While the unintentional injuries and diabetes death rates showed no clear trend from 1994-2003, the rates for cancer, heart disease, and stroke all declined steadily and were each 27-35% lower in 2003 than in 1994 (Table DT13 and Figure DT16).
In 2003, cancer surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death of residents 65-84 years old. Leading causes of death for residents aged 65-84 years were cancer (10,048 deaths), heart disease (9,946), stroke (1,799), CLRD (1,762), and diabetes (1,297) in 2003. Among those aged 85 years and over, the leading causes were heart disease (8,881 deaths), cancer (2,749), stroke (1,638), and Alzheimer’s disease (1,039) (Table DS10). Among residents aged 65 and over, there were no clear trends in death rates due to heart disease, stroke, CLRD, or diabetes from 1994 to 2003. From 1995 to 2003, there was a small but steady decline in the death rate due to cancer among those 65 and over. However, there was a 130% increase in the death rate due to Alzheimer’s disease from 1994-2003. The increase in the number and rate of Alzheimer’s deaths among those aged 65 and over has been fast and steady (Table DT14 and Figure DT17). The increase has been attributed to improvements in diagnosis and awareness of the condition within the medical community, as well as a possible understatement of the comparability ratio used to adjust pre-1999 data coded under ICD-9 (Kochanek, 2004).
Leading causes of death varied by race and ethnicity. The ten leading causes of death for Whites were the same as for the population as a whole, which is to be expected since 80% of decedents were White. The ranking of the seventh to tenth leading causes was different, however. Alzheimer’s disease was the seventh leading cause of death among Whites while it was ranked tenth overall. Among Blacks, the three leading causes of death were the same as for the population as a whole. The fifth leading cause of death among Blacks was HIV disease (12 th overall) and homicide was the tenth leading cause (18 th overall). While Alzheimer’s disease was the tenth leading cause in the overall population, it was fifteenth among Blacks. For all leading causes of death except CLRD and Alzheimer’s disease, age-adjusted death rates for Blacks were higher than for Whites. Among Hispanics, the top two causes of death were the same as for the population as a whole, unintentional injuries were the third leading cause of death (6 th overall), and HIV disease was sixth (12 th overall). For all of the ten leading causes of death except diabetes, age-adjusted death rates for Hispanics were lower than for Whites. Among Asians and Pacific Islanders, there were more deaths due to cancer than to heart disease. Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period was the ninth leading cause of death among Asians and Pacific Islanders (20 th overall). While CLRD was the fourth leading cause of death in the overall population, it was tenth among Asians and Pacific Islanders and Alzheimer’s disease (10 th overall) was ranked nineteenth. For all leading causes of death in the total population, age-adjusted death rates for Asians and Pacific Islanders were lower than for Whites. However, for perinatal conditions, the rate was slightly higher (Table DS11 and Figure DS8).
The ten leading causes of death also varied somewhat by sex. Among males, unintentional injury was the third leading cause of death while it was tenth among females. Kidney disease was the seventh and cirrhosis was the tenth leading cause of death among males, while Alzheimer’s disease was thirteenth. Alzheimer’s disease was the sixth leading cause of death among females while cirrhosis was thirteenth. Age-adjusted death rates for males were higher than for females for all leading causes except Alzheimer’s disease. For unintentional injuries and cirrhosis, the rates for males were more than double the rates for females (Table DS12 and Figure DS9).
In 2003, the leading types of cancer deaths were lung (4,587 deaths), colorectal (1,996), breast (1,491), pancreatic (980), and prostate (903). These five sites accounted for over half of the cancer deaths in 2003. Age-adjusted death rates for all cancer sites decreased from 1994 to 2003 with the exception of cancer of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts. Large declines were seen for cancer of the larynx (35%), prostate (34%), stomach (31%), nervous system (30%), and cervix (28%). The total age-adjusted cancer death rate in 2003 was down 17% from the 1994 rate (Table DS24 and Figure DS10).
The statewide age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer was 50.2 per 100,000 population. County rates ranged from 31.3 in Hunterdon to 76.3 in Gloucester . For colorectal cancer, the statewide rate was 21.6 and county rates ranged from 16.3 in Cumberland to 31.7 in Cape May . The age-adjusted female breast cancer death rate for New Jersey was 28.0. Union County ’s rate of 20.4 was the lowest and Gloucester ’s rate of 32.1 was the highest among the 16 counties with enough deaths to calculate reliable rates. The statewide age-adjusted pancreatic cancer death rate was 10.7 and rates ranged from 8.0 in Somerset to 13.1 in Burlington County among the 15 counties with sufficient data. For prostate cancer, the statewide rate was 26.0 and county rates ranged from 19.4 in Bergen County to 36.5 in Gloucester County, of counties with sufficient data (Table DC4).
More than half of deaths due to cancer occurred between the ages of 65 and 84 years (10,048 deaths). However, for all cancer sites, death rates were highest among those aged 85 years and over (Table DS25). For all cancer sites, age-adjusted death rates for males were higher than rates for females, with the exception of sex-specific sites. However, in the 25-44 year age group, the age-specific overall cancer death rate was higher for females than for males due primarily to breast, cervical, and ovarian cancer deaths. The total age-adjusted cancer death rate was 37% higher for males than for females and the age-adjusted death rate due to lung cancer was 60% higher for males than for females. Age-adjusted death rates for males were more than double the rates for females for cancers of the lip, oral cavity, and pharynx; esophagus; stomach; liver and intrahepatic bile ducts; skin; kidney and renal pelvis; and bladder (Tables DS26 and DS27 and Figure DS11).
Among males, the three leading types of cancer deaths were lung, colorectal, and prostate. However, among Black males, prostate cancer outranked colorectal and among Asian and Pacific Islander males, liver cancer tied with colorectal for second leading type while prostate cancer was not in the top ten. Among females, the three leading types of cancer deaths were lung, breast, and colorectal. However, among Hispanic females, breast cancer was ranked first and lung ranked second (Tables DS26 – DS31).
EXTERNAL CAUSES OF DEATH
In 2003, 2,285 New Jersey residents died as a result of unintentional injuries. One-third (761) were motor vehicle-related, one-quarter (568) were drug poisonings, and 256 (11%) were falls. Among those aged 25-54 years, drug poisoning was the leading cause of unintentional injury death and among those aged 65 and over, falls were the leading cause (Table DS32). The age-adjusted death rate due to unintentional injuries was 25.8 per 100,000 population. The rate was slightly higher for Blacks (34.2) and Whites (26.6) and lower for Hispanics (18.9) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (8.5). The rate for males (37.6) was more than twice the rate for females (14.7). For all types of unintentional injuries combined, the highest death rate was among those aged 65 years and older (67.6 per 100,000 population). Rates for those aged 15-54 were similar to the overall age-adjusted rate and rates for those under 15 years of age and those aged 55-64 were lower than average. For motor vehicle-related injuries, the highest death rates were among those aged 15-24 and 65 years and over (15.6). For drug poisonings, the highest rate (13.5) was among those aged 35-44 years. The age-adjusted death rate for motor vehicle-related injuries was nearly three times higher for males than for females. For drug poisonings, it was 3.6 times higher for males (Table DS33 and Figure DS12). Age-adjusted death rates for unintentional injuries ranged from a low of 18.4 in Bergen County to a high of 54.5 in Cumberland County , more than double the statewide rate (Table DC10 and Figure DC11).
There were 560 suicides among New Jersey residents in 2003. The age-adjusted death rate was 6.3 per 100,000 population. The highest death rate was in the 55-64 years age group (10.8) (Table DS34 and Figure DS13). The suicide rate was four times higher among males than females and Whites exceeded the overall rate by 21% (7.6) while rates for Blacks (4.4) and Hispanics (3.5) were 30% and 44% below the overall rate, respectively (Table DS35). The rate for White males aged 55-64 years was the highest: 19.9 per 100,000 population (Table DS39). Suffocation, which includes hanging and strangulation, was the most common suicide mechanism (203 deaths), followed by firearms (172) and poisoning (110). Firearms were more likely to be used among those aged 55 and over than any other mechanism. Males were nearly as likely to use firearms (35%) as suffocation (36%), while females were most likely to use poisoning (39%) followed by suffocation (36%). Among all races/ethnicities, suffocation was the most common mechanism except for Blacks for whom firearms were slightly more common (Table DS35 and Figure DS15). Among the 13 counties with data sufficient to calculate age-adjusted suicide rates, the lowest was in Hudson (3.9) and the highest was in Camden (12.7), double the statewide rate (Table DC10).
In 2003, there were 406 homicides of New Jersey residents. This figure represents a 22% increase over the 2002 number. The age-adjusted homicide rate was 4.9 per 100,000 population. The highest rate (11.8) was among those aged 15-24 years (Table DS36 and Figure DS14). The homicide rate was 3.6 times higher among males than females. The rate among Blacks was four times higher than the overall rate while the rate for Hispanics was virtually equal to the overall rate and the rate for Whites was one-third the overall rate (Table DS37). The rate for Black males aged 25-34 was the highest: 87.1 per 100,000 population (Table DS39). Firearm was the most common homicide mechanism (246 deaths), followed by the use of sharp objects (74). Sharp objects were more likely to be used on those aged 65 and over than any other mechanism. Firearm was the most common mechanism among each race/ethnicity and sex, however the share of homicides attributable to firearm use were not equal for all. For males, 66% of homicides were via firearms while only 41% of female homicides were. While 70% of homicides of Blacks were due to firearms, 55% of Hispanic and 41% of White homicides were attributable to firearms (Table DS37 and Figure DS16). Only six counties had enough resident homicides to calculate reliable age-adjusted death rates. Of those, the lowest rate (3.0) was in Middlesex County and the highest rate (17.3), in Essex County, was more than three times the statewide rate (Table DC10).
There were 436 firearm-related injury deaths of New Jersey residents in 2003, a 5% increase from 2002. Of those, 246 (56%) were homicides, 172 (39%) were suicides, 10 (2%) were unintentional, and 8 (2%) were legal intervention. Firearm-related homicides increased 17% from 2002 to 2003. The age-adjusted death rate due to firearms was 5.1 per 100,000 population. The highest death rate was in the 15-34 age group (10.2). The firearm-related death rate was nearly eight times higher among males than females. The rate among Blacks was three times higher than the overall rate while the rates for Whites and Hispanics were 39% and 29% lower than the overall rate, respectively. The rate for Black males aged 25-34 was highest: 85.9 per 100,000 population. While the number of firearm-related homicides decreased with increasing age, the opposite was true of firearm-related suicides. Unintentional firearm-related deaths were spread across age groups 15 years and over (Table DS38 and DS39 and Figure DS17). Of the eight counties with data sufficient to calculate reliable age-adjusted firearm-related death rates, rates ranged from 2.9 in Middlesex County to 14.2 in Essex County , nearly three times the statewide rate (Table DC10).
Drug-induced deaths are those with mental and behavioral disorders due to use of drugs, unintentional poisoning, intentional poisoning (suicide or homicide), or poisoning of undetermined intent as the underlying cause of death. There were 751 drug-induced deaths in 2003, a 15% decrease from 2002. The age-adjusted death rate was 8.6 per 100,000 population. The highest death rate (17.1) was among those aged 35-44 years. The rate among males was nearly three times the rate among females. The rates among Whites and Blacks were 10% and 67% higher, respectively, than the overall rate while the rate among Hispanics was 51% lower than the overall rate (Table DS40 and Figure DS18). Among the 13 counties with sufficient data, the age-adjusted drug-induced death rate ranged from a low of 5.9 in Bergen to a high of 16.6 in Atlantic County , nearly double the statewide rate (Table DC10).
Alcohol-induced deaths are those with mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol, degeneration of nervous system due to alcohol, alcoholic polyneuropathy, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, alcoholic gastritis, alcoholic liver disease, finding of alcohol in blood, unintentional acute alcohol poisoning, intentional alcohol self-poisoning (suicide), or alcohol poisoning of undetermined intent as the underlying cause of death. There were 428 alcohol-induced deaths in 2003, a decline of 11% from 2002. The age-adjusted death rate was 4.7 per 100,000 population. The highest death rate (12.0) was among those aged 55-64 years. The rate among males was nearly four times the rate among females. Rates varied little by race/ethnicity (Table DS41 and Figure DS18). Among the 11 counties with sufficient data, the age-adjusted alcohol-induced death rate ranged from a low of 2.9 in Bergen to a high of 7.5 in Hudson County (Table DC10).
Fatal injuries at work
Among New Jersey residents, there were 99 fatal injuries at work in 2003. Of those, 88 were male and 11 were female. The vast majority of deaths were due to unintentional injuries (83), but there were also 9 homicides and 6 suicides (Table DS42).
There are several major changes in this year’s death report. The tables and figures in the chapter are organized in three sections: trend data, cross-sectional data, and county data. Infant and fetal mortality data are in a separate chapter. Since data are available for municipalities at http://www.state.nj.us/health/chs/munilevel.htm and on the NJSHAD interactive query system at http://njshad.doh.state.nj.us/dicd10.html, they are no longer included in this report series. Some new data items have been included in this year’s report, several other topics have been explored in more depth than in the past, and more graphs have been added.
The reporting and labeling for race and ethnicity groups has also changed. Race (White, Black, Asian, Pacific Islander, etc.) and ethnicity (Hispanic and non-Hispanic) information are collected separately on death certificates. Despite some under-measurement of Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders, as described earlier in this chapter, data are presented for White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander where White, Black, and Asian/Pacific Islander do not include Hispanics. In recent years, most tables presented data for White, Black, and Other, regardless of ethnicity, and data for Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander were shown in a separate section.
The Technical Notes section contains detailed information on sources of data, quality of data, allocation of data by residence or occurrence, racial and ethnic classification, definitions, rates, cause of death rankings, ICD-10 cause of death codes, and comparability ratios.
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