number of births to New Jersey residents declined for the sixth consecutive
fertility increased slightly in 1996 from the 1995 rate, but remained
under the replacement level. The total black fertility rate exceeded
the population replacement rate, while the white rate was below the
1996, more than one-third of women who had had a previous cesarean
section delivery had vaginal deliveries.
majority of births were to females 25 through 34 years of age. However,
the percentage of mothers aged 35 and over continued to increase while
the percentage of births to teenage mothers continued to decline.
In the city of Camden, almost 30 percent of births were to teenage
were 19,197 births to Hispanic women, of any race, living in New Jersey.
About 80 percent of the births in Union City and Perth Amboy were
to Hispanic women.
than one-fourth of the live births were to women who reported they
were not married. Most teenage mothers were not married.
of women who delivered in 1996 began prenatal care in the first trimester
of pregnancy. Teenage mothers had the lowest percentage of first trimester
onset of prenatal care of any age group.
most frequently reported medical risk factors among women who delivered
in 1996 were diabetes, pregnancy-associated hypertension, and sexually
transmitted diseases other than genital herpes, in that order.
than 7 percent of live births were considered to be of low birth weight
and 1.5 percent were in the very low birth weight category.
percentage of births to black mothers in the low birth weight category
was 2.1 times the percentage of low birth weight births to white mothers.
birth weight was also found to be associated with mother's age, marital
status, number of previous pregnancy terminations and onset of prenatal
1996, one-third of women who received no prenatal care delivered low
birth weight babies.
number of deaths and the crude death rate decreased in 1996 from 1995
Jersey's crude death rate is higher than that of the country as a
whole; however, when the effect of age is eliminated through age-adjustment,
New Jersey's death rate is slightly lower than that of the U.S.
rates declined in every age group over the past year.
of the heart, malignant neoplasms (cancer), and cerebrovascular diseases
(stroke) accounted for almost two of every three deaths of state residents
an average day in 1996, 65 New Jerseyans died from diseases of the
heart; 50 from cancer; 12 from stroke; eight from COPD; seven each
from pneumonia/influenza and diabetes, six from unintentional injury;
five from HIV infection; three each from septicemia and nephritis/nephrosis,
and 34 from all other causes.
risks other than those that are age-related are highest for black
males and lowest for white females. Age-adjusted death rates are two
to three times as high for black males as for white females, regardless
of the standard population used.
were fewer deaths in 1996 than in 1995 from each of the ten leading
causes of death except COPD and nephritis/nephrosis. The most dramatic
decrease was in deaths from HIV infection, which declined 757 from
the previous year.
the effect of age is taken into account through age adjustment, the
cancer death rate in 1996 was slightly lower than it was ten years
cancer types showing major declines in death rates over the past ten
years were lip, oral cavity, and pharynx; colorectal; bone, skin,
connective tissue; female breast; and cervical.
leading cause of deaths of children aged one through 14 was unintentional
injuries in 1996.
of all types (unintentional, homicide, suicide and undetermined intentionality)
were the cause of two-thirds of the deaths of persons 15 through 24
infection fell to eighth rank as a cause of death, from sixth in 1995,
but remained the leading cause of death in persons 25 through 44 years
of age. HIV infection was responsible for about one-fourth of all
deaths in this age group.
were 420 deaths of persons 25 through 44 from accidental poisoning
by drugs, medicinal substances and biologicals (this group includes
accidental drug overdoses).
and heart disease, in that order, account for more than 60 percent
of the deaths of persons 45 through 64; the death rates in this age
group from both of these causes have been declining for more than
three-fourths of deaths occur in persons 65 and over.
the previous ten years, the motor vehicle-related fatality rate decreased
in every age group except the elderly.
of Potential Life Lost before age 65 (YPLL) is a measure of premature
or early death. In 1996, the YPLL rate for blacks was 2.6 times the
white rate and the male rate was 1.7 times the rate for females.
leading cause of premature deaths among all New Jersey residents,
among whites, and among females was cancer. The highest female cancer
YPLL rate was for breast cancer.
injuries was the second leading cause of early death among the total
population and the leading cause of YPLL among males.
infection was the third leading cause of premature death among the
total population and the leading cause of YPLL among blacks. The YPLL
rate due to HIV infection for blacks was almost eight times the white
homicide YPLL rate was almost nine times as high in blacks as in whites.
the leading causes of YPLL among state residents, black rates were
higher than white rates for all causes except suicide.
the leading causes of YPLL, male rates were higher than female rates
for all causes except cancer.
infant mortality rate increased slightly in 1996 over the 1995 figure.
black infant mortality rate increased over the 1995 level and the
rates for white and other races declined. The black infant mortality
rate was 2.8 times the rate among white infants.
were fewer marriages in the state in 1996 than in any year since 1977.
median ages at first marriage of brides and grooms continued to increase.
Jersey continued to rank fifth in the nation in terms of cumulative
reported AIDS cases and had the fourth highest AIDS incidence rate
per 100,000 in 1996, after Washington, D.C., New York State and Florida.
Jersey's AIDS cases differ in demographic characteristics and method
of transmission from those in the rest of the country:
half of New Jersey's cases are heterosexual injecting drug users,
while the majority of the nation's cases are homosexual or bisexual
males who are not injecting drug users.
proportion of the state's AIDS cases which are attributed to heterosexual
transmission is higher than in the country as a whole.
proportion of New Jersey's AIDS cases who are female is higher
than the proportion in the U.S.
than half of New Jersey's reported AIDS cases are found among
non-Hispanic black residents, while about one-third of the nation's
cases are non-Hispanic blacks.
and Hudson Counties together accounted for more than 40 percent of
all the AIDS cases diagnosed in New Jersey in 1996.
incidence of verified tuberculosis has declined during each of the
past four years.
60 percent of verified cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed in persons
25 through 54 in 1996; in addition, slightly less than 60 percent
were diagnosed in males and almost 40 percent were black.
white females, the most frequent age at diagnosis of verified tuberculosis
was 65 and over.
syphilis incidence rate continued to decline. However, the number
of reported gonorrhea cases in 1996 increased more than 50 percent
over the 1995 figure. The most frequently reported sexually transmitted
disease was chlamydia.
incidence of Lyme disease, giardiasis, and campylobacteriosis increased
over 1995 levels.