Appendix

 

A

Statutory and Administrative Laws on Surveying

 

B

Feature Code List For Electronic Data Collection

 

C

Miscellaneous Check Lists

 

D

Metrication Issues

 

E

Surveying and Transportation Internet Resources

  F Surveying Terms and Glossary

 

Appendix A - New Jersey Statutory and Administrative Laws on Surveying Back to top

13:9A - 1.        Legislative intent; inventory and mapping of tidal wetlands; filing in office of county recording officer

a.       The Legislature hereby finds and declares that one of the most vital and productive areas of our natural world is the so-called "estuarine zone," that area between the sea and the land; that this area protects the land from the force of the sea, moderates our weather, provides a home for water fowl and for 2/3 of all our fish and shellfish, and assists in absorbing sewage discharge by the rivers of the land; and that in order to promote the public safety, health and welfare, and to protect public and private property, wildlife, marine fisheries and the natural environment, it is necessary to preserve the ecological balance of this area and prevent its further deterioration and destruction by regulating the dredging, filling, removing or otherwise altering or polluting thereof, all to the extent and in the manner provided herein.

b.       The Commissioner of Environmental Protection shall, within 2 years of the effective date of this act, make an inventory and maps of all tidal wetlands within the State.  The boundaries of such wetlands shall generally define the areas that are at or below high water and shall be shown on suitable maps, which may be reproductions or aerial photographs.  Each such map shall be filed in the office of the county recording officer of the county or counties in which the wetlands indicated thereon are located.  Each wetland map shall bear a certificate of the commissioner to the effect that it is made and filed pursuant to this act.  To be entitled to filing no wetlands map need meet the requirements of R.S. 47:1-6.

L.1970, c. 272, § 1, eff.  Nov. 5, 1970.

Historical Note

Title of Act:

An Act concerning the protection of natural resources in coastal wetlands, providing for the designation by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection of certain coastal wetlands after public hearing, and requiring from the commissioner prior to the dredging, removing, filling or otherwise altering or pol1uting coastal wetlands. L.1970, c. 272.

ARTICLE 3D.  ENTRY UPON EASEMENTS AND RIGHTS OF WAY

48:3-17.9.     Definitions

As used herein:

(a) "Public utility" means any public utility defined in 48:2-13;

(b) "Right-of-way" means the area devoted to passing over, on, through or under lands with utility plant facilities as part of a way for such purpose;

(c) "Easement" means privileges essential or appurtenant to the enjoyment of a right-of-way; and

(d) "Emergency" means any time a public utility service is interrupted or in immediate danger of being interrupted by the elements or by any other cause or when the condition of the equipment of the public utility is in need of immediate repair to prevent injury to persons, or damage to property.

L.1969, c. 182. § 1.

48:3-17.10.               Notice to landowner before entry

It shall be unlawful for any public utility to enter upon any lands in which it has acquired an easement or right-of-way, for the purpose of erecting, installing, moving, removing, altering or maintaining any structures or fixtures thereon, other than structures or fixtures owned by the public utility, or for the purpose of maintaining such easement or right-of-way by cleaning moving, cutting or destroying any trees, shrubs, plants or other growth thereon unless and until not less than 5 days' notice of such entry shall be given to the owner of the lands subject to such easement or right-of-way personally or by certified or registered mail addressed to the owner at his address as shown by the assessment records of the municipality in which the land is situate, but nothing herein shall prohibit entry without notice in any case

(a) Of an emergency, or

(b) Where such notice is waived by the owner, or

(c) Where the easement or right-of-way contains an express provision permitting entry without notice or upon notice of a lesser period of time, which is compiled with,

or

(d) Where the owner consents to the entry of the public utility for such purposes, or

(e) Where the structure, fixture, tree, shrub, plant or other growth, or portion thereof, to be dealt with as aforesaid, is located over, on, through or under any public street, road, highway or other public thoroughfare.

L1969, c. 182, § 2.

27:7-21.     Additional powers of commissioner

   In addition to, and not in limitation of, his general powers, the commissioner may: 

    a.   Determine and adopt rules, regulations and specifications and enter into contracts covering all matters and things incident to the acquisition, improvement, betterment, construction, reconstruction, maintenance and repair of State highways; 

    b.   Execute and perform as an independent contractor or through contracts made in the name of the State, all work incident to the maintenance and repair of State highways; 

    c.   Establish and maintain as an independent contractor or employer a patrol repair system for the proper and efficient maintenance and repair of State highways; 

    d.   Employ and discharge, subject to the provisions of the Civil Service law, all foremen and laborers, prescribe their qualifications and furnish all equipment, tools and material necessary for such patrol repair system; 

    e.   Widen, straighten and regrade State highways;

    f.   Vacate any State highway or part thereof;

    g.   The commissioner and his authorized agents and employees may enter upon any lands, waters and premises in the State, after giving written notice to the recorded owner at least three days prior thereto, for the purpose of making surveys, soundings, drillings, borings and examinations as he may deem necessary or convenient for the purposes of this Title, and such entry shall not be deemed a trespass; nor shall such entry be deemed an entry under any condemnation proceedings which may be then pending.  The commissioner shall make reimbursement for any actual damages resulting to such lands, waters and premises as a result of such activities; 

    h.   Enter into cooperative agreements with any State department, agency or authority or any county or municipality enabling the State to negotiate for and condemn lands and also provide relocation services and payments deemed necessary for the effectuation of State or federally financed State Aid Transportation and related Programs; 

    i.   Enter into agreements with the New Jersey Turnpike Authority with respect to the funding of the resurfacing, restoring, rehabilitation and reconstructing of the I-95 Extension of the New Jersey Turnpike through the allocation of monies apportioned by the United States Department of Transportation pursuant to 23 U.S.C. s.119 or a successor program.  Any such agreement shall be subject to the continued eligibility of the I-95 Extension for federal aid, the availability of funds appropriated by Congress and the appropriation of funds by the Legislature for that purpose.  No such agreement shall constitute or create a debt or liability of the State within the meaning of any constitutional or statutory limitation nor shall any  such agreement constitute a pledge of either the faith and credit or the taxing power of the State; and 

    j.   Do whatever may be necessary or desirable to effectuate the purposes of this Title. 

    Amended 1967,c.174; 1972,c.56; 1991,c.183,s.2.

Assembly Higher Education and Regulated Professions Committee Statement

Assembly, No. 5048-L. 1989. c. 276

The Assembly Higher Education and Regulated Professions Committee favorably report Assembly Bill No. 5048 with amendments.

As amended by committee, this bill changes certain of the provisions regarding the practice of engineering by expanding and revising the definition of professional engineering.  The bill also expands the definition of "responsible charge" and permits the State Board of Professional Engineers and land Surveyors to issue certificates of authorization to certain corporations for the provision of engineering and land surveying services.  The certificate of authorization shall designate a New Jersey licensee or licensees who are in responsible charge of the engineering or land surveying activities and decisions of the corporation.  All final drawings, papers or documents involving the practice of engineering or the practice of land surveying, when issued by the corporation or filed for public record, shall be signed and sealed by the New Jersey licensee who is in responsible charge of the work.

The bill also provides for review of complaints to the Joint Committee of Architects and Engineers, which is to be established by a companion bill the "Building Design Services Act," of 1989.  Under the provisions of that bill, the board:

(1) May refer any complaint, question or controversy involving the application of that act to the joint committee.

(2) Shall take no disciplinary action against any licensed architect alleged to have engaged in a violation of that act or the unlicensed practice of engineering.

(3) Shall refer a request for a disciplinary ruling to the joint committee.

(4) Shall provide any and all documents in its possession regarding any matter referred to the joint committee.

(5) Shall, when necessary and appropriate, exercise the investigation or enforcement powers conferred by law to aid and assist the joint committee in its functions.

(6) Shall discipline any unlicensed individual who, or unauthorized business association which, designs an engineering work in violation of that act. Such a violation shall be deemed the unlicensed practice of engineering. Any other violation of that act by an unlicensed individual or business association shall be disciplined by the New Jersey State Board of Architects.  Such a violation shall be deemed the unlicensed practice of architecture.

The bill also repeals section 18 of P.L.1938, c. 342 (C. 45:8-44) which provided that all licensed land surveyors must maintain a place of business with a conspicuous sign including his name, address and the designation "Licensed Land Surveyor."

The committee amended the bill to delete a partnership of certified landscape architects as one of the groups eligible to offer engineering services under the bill's provisions.  The committee also made a variety of technical amendments to the bill.


Historical and Statutory Notes

1989 Legislation

Section 13 of L.1989, c. 276, approved Jan. 9. 1990, provides:

   "This act shall take effect immediately but shall remain inoperative until 120 days following the enactment into law of P.L.1989, c. 275 (C…..) and P.L.1989. c. 277 (C. 45:4B-1 et seq.). [Both approved Jan. 8, 1990]"

Administrative Code References

      Board of professional engineer-, and land surveyors, see N.J.A.C. 13:40-1.1 et seq.

Contract requirement, see N.J.A.C, 13:40- 1 0. 1.

Notes of Decisions

2.       Obligation to obtain license

      Licenses to practice professional engineering or

professional land surveying arc required as a matter of public policy of state.  Hyland v. Ponzio,

159 N.J.Super. 233. 387 A.2d 1206 (A.D.1978).


45:8-28.     Definitions 

2. (a) The term "professional engineer" within the meaning and intent of this chapter shall mean a person who by reason of his special knowledge of the mathematical and physical sciences and the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, acquired by professional education and practical experience, is qualified to practice engineering as hereinafter defined as attested by his license as a professional engineer. 

    (b)  The terms "practice of engineering" or "professional engineering" within the meaning and intent of this chapter shall mean any service or creative work the adequate performance of which requires engineering education, training, and experience and the application of special knowledge of the mathematical, physical and engineering sciences to such services or creative work as consultation, investigation, evaluation, planning and design of engineering works and systems, planning the use of land and water, engineering studies, and the administration of construction for the purpose of determining compliance with drawings and specifications; any of which embraces such services or work, either public or private, in connection with any engineering project including: utilities, structures, buildings, machines, equipment, processes, work systems, projects, telecommunications, or equipment of a mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic or thermal nature, insofar as they involve safeguarding life, health or property, and including such other professional services as may be necessary to the planning, progress and completion of any engineering services. The design of buildings by professional engineers shall be consistent with section 7 of the "Building Design Services Act," P.L.1989, c.277 (C.45:4B-7). 

    The practice of professional engineering shall not include the work ordinarily performed by persons who operate or maintain machinery or equipment. The provisions of this chapter shall not be construed to prevent or affect the employment of architects in connection with engineering projects within the scope of the act to regulate the practice of architecture and all the amendments and supplements thereto. 

    A person shall be construed to practice or offer to practice engineering, within the meaning and intent of this chapter, who practices any branch of the profession of engineering; or who, by verbal claim, sign, advertisement, letterhead, card, or in any other way represents himself to be a professional engineer, or through the use of some other title utilizing or including the word engineer, implies that he is a professional engineer; or who represents himself as able to perform, or who does perform any engineering service or work or any other professional service recognized by the board as professional engineering. 

    Nothing herein shall prohibit licensed architects from providing or offering services consistent with the "Building Design Services Act," P.L.1989, c.277 (C.45:4B-1 et seq.). 

    (c)  The term "engineer-in-training" as used in this chapter shall mean a person who is a potential candidate for license as a professional engineer who is a graduate in an approved engineering curriculum of four years or more from a school or college accredited by the board as of satisfactory standing, and who, in addition, has successfully passed an examination in the fundamental engineering subjects, as defined elsewhere herein. 

    (d)  The term "land surveyor" as used in this chapter shall mean a person who is a professional specialist in the technique of measuring land, educated in the principles of mathematics, the related physical and applied sciences, and the relevant requirements of law, all requisite to the practice of land surveying as attested by his license as a land surveyor. 

    (e)  The term "practice of land surveying" within the meaning and intent of this chapter shall mean any service or work the adequate performance of which involves the application of special knowledge of the principles of mathematics, the related physical and applied sciences and the relevant requirements of law to the act of measuring and locating distances, directions, elevations, natural and man-made topographical features in the air, on the surface of the earth, within underground workings, and on beds of bodies of water for the purpose of determining areas and volumes, and for the establishing of horizontal and vertical control as it relates to construction stake-out, for the monumentation of property boundaries and for the platting and layout of lands and subdivisions thereof and for the preparation and perpetuation of maps, record plats, field notes, records and property descriptions in manual and computer coded form that represent these surveys. The practice of land surveying shall include the establishment and maintenance of the base mapping and related control for land information systems that are developed from the above referenced definition of the practice of land surveying. 

    For purposes of this subsection, "land information systems" means any computer coded spatial database designed for multi-purpose public use developed from or based on property boundaries. 

    A person who engages in the practice of land surveying; or who, by verbal claim, sign, advertisement, letterhead, card or in any other way represents himself to be a land surveyor or professional surveyor; or who represents himself as able to perform any land surveying service or work or any service which is recognized as within the practice of land surveying shall be deemedto practice or offer to practice land surveying. 

    Nothing in this chapter shall preclude a person licensed by the board as a professional engineer from performing those measurements necessary for the design, construction stake-out, construction and post-construction records of an engineering project, provided that these measurements are not related to property lines, lot lines, easement lines, or right-of-way lines, the establishment of which are required to be made by a land surveyor. 

    (f)  The term "board" as used in this chapter shall mean the State Board of Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors. 

    (g)  The term "responsible charge" as used in this chapter shall mean the rendering of regular and effective supervision by a competent professional engineer or land surveyor to those individuals performing services which directly and materially affect the quality and competence of the professional services rendered by the licensee.  A licensee engaged in any of the following acts or practices shall be deemed not to have rendered regular and effective supervision: 

    (1)  The regular and continuous absence from principal office premises from which professional services are rendered, except for performance of field work or presence in a field office maintained exclusively for a specific project; 

    (2)  The failure to personally inspect or review the work of subordinates where necessary and appropriate; 

    (3)  The rendering of a limited, cursory or perfunctory review of plans or projects in lieu of an appropriate detailed review; 

    (4)  The failure to personally be available on a reasonable basis or with adequate advance notice for consultation and inspection where circumstances require personal availability. 

    (h)  The term "certificate of authorization" shall mean a certificate issued by the board pursuant to this amendatory and supplementary act. 

    (i)  The term "joint committee" shall mean the Joint Committee of Architects and Engineers established pursuant to the "Building Design Services Act," P.L.1989, c.277 (C.45:4B-1 et seq.). 

    (j)  The term "closely allied professional" as used in this chapter shall mean and is limited to licensed architects, professional engineers, land surveyors, and professional planners. 

    (k)  The term "telecommunications" as used in this chapter, shall mean, as it is applied to the practice of engineering, subjects which deal with the generation, transmission, receiving, and processing of information bearing signals for the purpose of fulfilling a particular communication need.  The most common forms of signals are those encountered in voice, image and data transmission.  Subjects relevant to telecommunications include but are not limited to: analog and digital circuits, propagation of electromagnetic energy through guided media such as a transmission line, fibers, wave guides, and unguided media such as free space as in broadcast and mobile communication systems, communication theory, including modulation,noise interference, and the interface with computers. 

    (l)  The term "surveyor-in-training" as used in this chapter shall mean a person who is a potential candidate for licensure as a land surveyor, who is a graduate in an approved surveying curriculum of four years or more from a school or college accredited by the board as of satisfactory standing, and who, in addition, has successfully passed an examination in the fundamental surveying subjects, approved by the board pursuant to section 9 of P.L. 1938, c.342 (C.45:8-35). 

    L.1938,c.342,s.2; amended 1950,c.149,s.2; 1970,c.177,s.2; 1977,c.340,s.1; 1989,c.276,s.2; 1992,c.64,s.1. 

45:8-39.     Practice without license and other violations; penalties; actions for penalties

 13.  a.  Any person who, hereafter, is not legally authorized to practice professional engineering or land surveying in this State according to the provisions of this act, who shall so practice or offer so to practice in this State, except as provided in section 14 of this act, or any person presenting or attempting to file as his own the certificate of license of another, or who shall give false or forged evidence of any kind to the board, or to any member or representative thereof, in obtaining a certificate of license, or who shall falsely impersonate another licensed practitioner of like or different name, or who shall use or attempt to use an expired certificate of license, an unexpired and revoked certificate of license, or a certificate of license which is on a retired status list, or who shall use either the title "Engineer-in-Training" or "Surveyor-in-Training" without holding a valid certificate of registration issued by the board, or who shall otherwise violate any of the provisions of this act, shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $200.00 for the first offense and not more than $500.00 for each and every subsequent offense. The penalties provided for by this section shall be sued for and recovered in civil actions by the State Board of Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors.

b.   Pursuant to the provisions of the "Building Design Services Act," P.L.1989, c.277 (C.45:4B-1 et seq.) the board:

(1)  May refer any complaint, question or controversy involving the application of that act to the joint committee.

(2)  Shall take no disciplinary action against any licensed architect alleged to have engaged in a violation of that act or the unlicensed practice of engineering.

(3)  Shall refer a request for a declaratory ruling to the joint committee.

(4)  Shall provide any and all documents in its possession regarding any matter referred to the joint committee.

(5)  Shall, when necessary and appropriate, exercise the investigation or enforcement powers conferred by law to aid and assist the joint committee in its functions.

(6)  Shall, consistent with that act, discipline any professional engineer who, or business association authorized to offer engineering services which, violates that act.  Such a violation shall be deemed professional misconduct. Any violation of that act by an unlicensed individual or unauthorized business association shall be disciplined by the New Jersey State Board of Architects pursuant to the provisions of P.L.1978, c.73 (C.45:1-14 et seq.).  Such a violation shall be deemed the unlicensed practice of architecture.  However, the design of an engineering work by an unlicensed individual or unauthorized business association shall be disciplined by the State Board of Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors pursuant to the provisions of P.L.1978, c.73 (C.45:1-14 et seq.).  Such a violation shall be deemed the unlicensed practice of engineering.

c.   No person, firm, partnership, association or corporation shall bring or maintain any action in the courts of this State for the collection of compensation for services constituting the practice of engineering or land surveying without alleging and proving that he was duly licensed in accordance with this chapter at the time the alleged cause of action arose.

d.   The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction of actions for penalties under this act.

   L.1938,c.342,s.13; amended 1947,c.60,s.2; 1950,c.149,s.13; 1952,c.129; 1953,c.43,s.38; 1970,c.177,s.3;

1989,c.276,s.4; 1992,c.64,s.4; 1995,c.36,s.2.

45:8-40.  Persons exempt

    The following shall be exempted from the provisions of this chapter:

    (1) A person not a resident of and having no established place of business in this State, practicing or offering to practice herein professional engineering or land surveying within the meaning and intent of this chapter, when such practice does not exceed in the aggregate 30 consecutive days in any calendar year;  provided, such person is legally qualified by license to practice said professional engineering or land surveying in any State or country in which the requirements and qualifications for a certificate of license are at least comparable to those specified in this chapter.

    However, no final plans or reports may be submitted under this provision.

     (2) A person not a resident of and having no established place of business in this State, or who has recently become a resident thereof, practicing or offering to practice herein for more than 30 days in any calendar year professional engineering or land surveying, if he shall have filed with the board an application for a certificate of license and shall have paid the fee required by this chapter;  provided, that such a person is legally qualified to  practice said professional engineering or land surveying in any State or country in which the requirements and qualifications for obtaining a license are at least comparable to those specified in this chapter.  Such exemption shall continue only for such time as the board requires for the consideration of the application for license certificate.

    (3) An employee or a subordinate of a person holding a license under this chapter or an employee of a person exempted from license by subsections (1) and  (2) of this section;  provided, this practice does not include responsible  charge of design or supervision.

    (4) Officers and employees of the Government of the United States while engaged within this State in the practice of professional engineering or land surveying, for said government.

    (5) The practice of engineering or land surveying solely as an officer or employee of a corporation engaged in interstate commerce as defined in an act of Congress entitled  "Act to regulate commerce,"  approved February 4, 1887, and as amended, unless the same affects public safety or health.

     L.1938, c. 342, p. 866, s. 14.  Amended by L.1950, c. 149, p. 327, s. 14; L.1977, c. 340, s. 5, eff. Jan. 25, 1978.

45:8-41.        Licensed engineers and surveyors on public contracts or works required

Hereafter no county, city, town, township, village, borough or other municipal corporations or other Political subdivisions in the State shall engage in the design, construction or maintenance of any public work involving professional engineering for which plans, specifications and estimates have not been made by and the construction and maintenance supervised by a licensed professional engineer or a registered architect, nor shall any county, city, town, township, village, borough or other municipal corporation or other political subdivision in the State employ any person to perform work involving land surveying except a licensed land surveyor.

45:8-43.     Filing of name of engineer engaged by governmental departments; employment of engineers and land surveyors

    The clerk of such department, institution, commission, board or body of the State Government or of any political subdivision thereof shall file with the secretary-director of the State Board of Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors the name of any engineer designated, appointed or employed, within 30 days after appointment. Where professional engineers or land surveyors are employed, subject to the provisions of the civil service law, the appointment of any such person shall be understood to mean and include appointment after such person has been certified as having satisfactorily passed a civil service examination.  No person, firm, association or corporation engaged in engineering or land surveying, shall employ an engineer or land surveyor, in responsible charge of any work, within the meaning and intent of this act, other than a duly qualified professional engineer or land surveyor, who has been licensed pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, prior to such employment by the person, firm, association or corporation so engaged in engineering or land surveying; provided, however, that nothing in this chapter shall apply to any public utility as defined in chapter 2 of Title 48 of the Revised Statutes, or any employee thereof or to any improvement or proposed improvement made by any such public utility or by any employee of or any contractor or agent for said public utility.

    Nothing in this chapter shall apply to a corporation or any of its affiliated companies any of which are in the field of telecommunications or any employee thereof where either said corporation or any of its affiliated companies is subject to the jurisdiction of the State Board of Public Utilities or the Federal Communications Commission.

    Nothing in this chapter shall apply to a corporation in the field of telecommunications, or to its affiliates, or any employees thereof in which the primary business is research and technical development manufacturing or product design.

    L.1938, c.342, s.17; amended 1950,c.149,s.17; 1989,c.276,s.6. 


Historical and Statutory Notes

1989 Legislation

L-1989. c. 276 operative 120 days after Jan. 8,

1990. see Historical and Statutory Notes under          § 45:8-27.

Statement: Committee statement to Assembly,

No. 5048-L.1989. c. 276, see 1 45:8.27.



45:8-44.  Repealed by L.1989, c. 276, § 12, eff.  Jan. 8, 1990


Historical and Statutory Notes

1989 Legislation

L.1989. c. 276 operative 120 days after Jan. 8, 1990, see Historical and Statutory Notes under § 45:8-27.

Statement: Committee statement to Assembly,

No. 5048-L.1999, c. 276, see § 45:8-27.


45:8-44.1.        Authority of land surveyors to go on, over and upon lands of others during reasonable hours

A person licensed to practice land surveying as provided in P.L.1938. c. 342 (C. 45:8-27 et seq.) and any of his agents, servants or employees under his direction who are necessary to make a land survey shall have the authority to go on, over and upon lands of others during reasonable hours when necessary to make land surveys if:

a. The licensed professional land surveyor has made a reasonable attempt, as defined in this section, to notify the owner of the land and, in the case of a lease, the lessee thereof, of his desire to enter on, over and upon the owner's or lessee's land to make a land survey and, the attempt having failed, the licensed professional land surveyor has given written notice, seven days prior to the proposed entry, to the municipal police department of the municipality in which the land is located of his intention to enter, containing the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of those who propose to enter the land and the date, time, duration, and location of the proposed entry; and

b. The land or any part thereof, to which entry is sought, is not enclosed by a constructed or natural barrier which is at least 6 feet in height or is not posted with signs or notices which prohibit trespassing and contain the name and address of the owner or lessee of the land;

c. As used in this section a "reasonable attempt" to notify an owner or lessee means: an attempt to seek acknowledgment of the owner of the land and, in the case of a lease, the lessee thereof, by certified mail, return receipt requested, the attempt to be made a second time if unsuccessful the first time and a third time if unsuccessful the second time, each attempt to be made on a separate business day.

L.1983, c. 460, § 1, eff.  Jan. 12, 1984.

Historical and Statutory Notes

Tide of Act:

An Act authorizing licensed professional land

surveyors to enter lands of third parties under certain circumstances.  L.1983, c. 460.

45:8-45            Certificate and seal of licensed engineer, surveyor or architect on plans and specifications on public work

No department, institution, commission, board or body of the State Government, or any political subdivision thereof, being the depository or having the custody of any plan or specification involving professional engineering, shall receive or file any such plan or specification unless there is affixed thereto the seal of a professional engineer licensed pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, or the seal of a registered architect thereon nor receive or, file any plan involving land surveying unless there is affixed thereto the seal of a land surveyor licensed pursuant to this chapter.

L.1938, c. 342, p. 869, § 19.  Amended by L.1950, c. 149, p. 330, § 18.

Historical Note


The 1950 amendment omitted the words "involving professional engineering" following the words "plan or specification", substituted "unless there is affixed thereto the seal" for "unless there shall be attached there to the certificate and seal", and omitted the words "or specification" following the words "file any plan" and preceding the words "involving land surveying".


46:23-9.14.      Prerequisites to filing

The county recording officer shall not accept for filing any map unless it has endorsed thereon a certificate signed and sealed with the municipal seal by the municipal.. clerk or secretary of the planning board as the case may be, stating that the proper authority has approved the map or stating its exemption from approval which certificate shall state that said map complies with the provisions of this law and shall designate the day on or before which said map is required to be filed by the provisions of the applicable law and provided that said map is filed on or before said designated day.

47:1-6.  Maps; requirements prerequisite to filing In certain offices

No map, plat, plan or char-t of lands, required or that may be required by law to be filed, or that may be presented to the clerk of the County Court, register of deeds and mortgages or surrogate in any county of this State, shall be received for filing unless the same shall be made upon translucent tracing cloth, with fast colored, waterproof ink and be accompanied by a cloth print duplicate. 

Amended by L1953, c. 45, p. 828, § 2, eff.  March 19, 1953.

Historical Note

Source: L1914, c. 12, § 1, p. 25 [1924                                    The 1953 amendment substituted

Suppl. § 44-98d].                                                         " county court" for "court of common pleas."

46:23-9.15.      Filing and indexing of maps, fee

The county recording officer of each county shall, when received by him for that purpose in accordance with the provisions of this law file in folios, slides, cabinets or other receptacles, maps of land lying in whole or in part in the county where the same are offered to be filed; provided that he shall retain the original tracing on translucent tracing cloth or its equivalent unmounted in an appropriate file or container, for preservation and use for reproduction purposes only, prints of which may be made available to the public at a reasonable cost.  He shall endorse on the tracing and cloth print duplicate the date of the filing thereof in his office, and he shall provide and keep a proper index of all maps on file in his office.  The county recording officer shall, for filing and indexing each map receive such fee as may be provided by law, except that when any map shall be presented for filing by the State of New Jersey, or any of its agencies no fee shall be charged for the filing thereof.

L.1960, c. 141, p. 669, § 7, eff.  Jan. 1, 1961.

Historical Note

Prior Laws: C. 46:23-9.6 (L.1953, c.                         L.1910, c. 83, § 1. p. 122 (C.S. p. 1574,

358, p. 1941, § 6).                                                       § 118).  L.1927, c. 54, § 1, p. 107.

R.S. 46:23-9.

CHAPTER 218

An Act concerning the official survey base of the State and amending

R.S.51:3-7 and R.S.51:3-8.

BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and General Assembly of the State of New Jersey:

1. R.S.51:3-7 is amended to read as follows:

Official survey base established; plane co-ordinates.

51:3-7.  The official survey base for New Jersey shall be a system of plane co-ordinates to be known as the New Jersey system of plane co-ordinates, said system being defined as a transverse Mercator projection of the Geodetic Reference System of 1980, having a control meridian 74° 30' west from Greenwich on which meridian the scale is set at one part in 10,000 too small.  All co-ordinates of the system are expressed in meters, the x co-ordinate being measured easterly along the grid and the y co-ordinate being measured northerly along the grid, the origin of the co-ordinates being on the meridian 74° 30' west from Greenwich at the intersection of the parallel 38° 50' north latitude, such origin being given the co-ordinates x = 150,000 meters; y=0 meters.  The precise position of said system shall be as marked on the ground by triangulation or traverse stations established in conformity with the standards adopted by the National Geodetic Survey, formerly the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey for first and second-order work whose geodetic positions have been rigidly adjusted on the North American Datum of 1983 or the most recently published adjustment by the National Geodetic Survey, and whose plane co-ordinates have been computed on the system defined.  The New Jersey co-ordinate system defined by the North American Datum of 1927 may be used concurrently with or in lieu of the system defined by the North American Datum of 1983 for a period of 36 months after the effective date of this amendatory act, P.L.1989, c.218.

Standard conversions from meters to feet shall be the adopted standards of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

2. R.S.51:3-8 is amended to read as follows:

Connecting property surveys with system of co-ordinate".

51:3-8.  Any triangulation or traverse station established as described in section 51:3-7 of this title shall be used in establishing a connection between a property survey and the above-mentioned system of rectangular co-ordinates.

3. This act shall take effect immediately.

Approved December 29, 1989.

51:3-9.             Indorsement of surveys

No survey of lands hereinafter made shall have endorsed thereon any legend or other statement indicating that it-is based upon the New Jersey system of plane co-ordinates unless the co-ordinates have been established on that system as herein defined.

Historical Note

Source: I 1935, c. 116 § 3 p. 300.

51:3-10.           Reliance wholly on system not required

  Nothing in this article contained shall be interpreted as requiring any purchaser or mortgagee to rely on a description based wholly upon the aforesaid system.

CHAPTER 118

An Act concerning geodetic markers and information, supplementing P. L. 1966, c. 301 (C. 27:1-A-1 et seq.) and repealing P.           L. 1938, c. 225 (C. 51:3-11 et seq.).

BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and General Assembly of the State of New Jersey :

C. 27:1A-5.5 Transportation Department responsibility,

1.    The Commissioner of Transportation shall: a. receive, preserve and make available to engineers, surveyors and others all records related to bench marks, plane coordinate monuments and triangulation stations provided for by R. S. 51:3-7 to R. S. 51:3-10, inclusive; b. inspect periodically all these marks, monuments and stations, replacing any which may have been destroyed or establishing new ones in lieu thereof; and c. erect new marks, monuments and stations wherever he considers it to be in the public interest to do so.

The commissioner shall establish a schedule of fees to be charged for supplying copies of maps, diagrams and reports and for providing elevations of bench marks, positions of plane coordinate monuments or other geodetic data.

2.       All files, books, papers and records of the Department of Environmental Protection relating to the functions, powers and duties assigned to that department by sections 1 and 2 of P. L. 1938, c. 225 (C. 51:3-11 and C. 51:3-12) shall, upon the effective date of this act, be transferred to the Department of Transportation.

Repealer.

3.    P. L. 1938, c. 225 (C. 51:3-11 et seq.) is repealed.

4.    This act shall take effect immediately.

Approved October 8, 1986.

Senate State Government, Federal and Interstate Relations and Veterans'

Affairs Committee Statement

Assembly, No. 21-L.1989, c. 218

The Senate State Government, Federal and Interstate Relations and Veterans' Affairs Committee reports favorably and with committee amendments Assembly, No. 21.

This bill changes the system of plane coordinates which comprises the official survey base for the State.  The plane coordinates system currently in use is a transverse Mercator projection of Clarke's spheroid of 1866, with a central meridian located 74° 40' west from Greenwich.  Under the bill, the system will be a transverse Mercator projection of the Geodetic Reference System of 1980, with a central meridian located 74° 30' west from Greenwich.  The bill also provides for the use of' the North American Datum of 1983 or the most recently published adjustment by the National Geodetic Survey.

All coordinates of the system shall be expressed in meters rather than in feet.  The bill revises the scale of the coordinate system from 1:40,000 (expressed in feet) to 1:10,000 (expressed in meters).  It also provides that standard conversions from meters to feet shall be the adopted standards of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

COMMITTEE AMENDMENTS

The committee amended the bill to correct the reference to the Geodetic Reference System of 1980 and to provide that the New Jersey coordinate system defined by the North American Datum of 1927 may be used concurrently with or in lieu of the system defined by the North American Datum of 1983 for-a period of 36 months after the effective date of this act.

46:23‑9.9. Short title

This act shall be known and may be cited as "the map filing law."

L.1960, c. 141, p. 662, s. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1961.

46:23‑9.10    Definitions.

2. Definitions. As used in this act:

    a. "Map" means a map, plat, condominium plan, right of way parcel maps of the State, county or municipality, chart, or survey of lands presented for approval to the proper authority as hereinafter defined or presented for filing in accordance with the provisions of this act, but does not mean a map, plat or sketch required to be filed or recorded under the provisions of P.L.1957, c.130 (C.48:3-17.2).

    b. "Municipal Engineer" means the official licensed professional engineer appointed by the proper authority of the municipality wherein the territory shown on a map is situate.

    c. The term "Professional Engineer" within the intent of this act shall mean a person, who is qualified to practice professional engineering and as attested by his license as a professional engineer as provided by subsection a. of section 2 of P.L.1938, c.342 (C.45:8-28).

    d. The term "Land Surveyor" as used in this act shall mean a person who is qualified to practice land surveying, and as attested by his license as a land surveyor as provided by subsection d. of section 2 of P.L.1938, c.342 (C.45:8-28).

    e. "Proper authority" means the chief legislative body of a municipality or any other agencies to whom the authority for the approval of maps may be duly designated by ordinance.

    f. "Right of way parcel map" means any right of way property parcel map of the State, county or municipality which shows highways, roads or street takings and any associated easements.

    g. "Entire tract" means all of the property that is being subdivided including lands remaining after subdivision.

    h. "Condominium plan" means a survey of the condominium property in sufficient detail to show and identify common elements, each unit and their respective locations and appropriate dimensions, which shall be filed in accordance with the requirements of section 3 of P.L.1960, c.141 (C.46:23-9.11). A condominium plan shall bear a certification by a land surveyor, professional engineer or architect authorized and qualified to practice in this State setting forth that the plan constitutes a correct representation of the improvements described.

L.1960,c.141,s.2; amended 1997, c.211, s.1.

46:23‑9.11    Requirements for approval.

3. Requirements for Approval.

    All subdivision plats, both major and where required minor, right of way parcel maps of the State, county or municipality, shall be filed in accordance with the provisions of P.L.1960, c.141 (C.46:23-9.9 et seq.). Right of way parcel maps shall meet the requirements of subsections a. through d., subsections f. through i., subsection m. and paragraph 12 of subsection r. of this section. Minor subdivision maps shall meet the requirements of subsections a. through i., and k. through q., and subsection j. except for the outside tract line monuments, and paragraph 13 of subsection r. of this section.

    A condominium plan shall be filed in accordance with the requirements of subsections a. through c., subsections f. through i., and subsection m. of this section.

    No map requiring approval by law or that is to be approved for filing with a county recording officer, shall be approved by the proper authority unless it shall conform to the following requirements:

    a. It shall be clearly and legibly drawn, and where required endorsed and presented either as an original drawing in black ink on translucent tracing cloth, translucent mylars at least 4 mils thick or its equivalent, of good quality, with signatures in ink, or as an equivalent reproduction on photographic fixed line mylar 4 mils thick with signatures in black ink or its equivalent and shall be accompanied by a cloth print or photographic fixed line mylar 4 mils thick duplicate thereof.

    b. It shall be one of six standard sizes namely, 8 1/2" x 13", 30" x 42", 24" x 36", 11" x 17", 18" x 24" or 15" x 21" as measured from cutting edges. If one sheet is not of sufficient size to contain the entire territory, the map may be divided into sections to be shown on separate sheets of equal sizes, with references on each sheet to the adjoining sheets.

    c. It shall show the scale, which shall be inches to feet and be large enough to contain legibly written data on the dimensions, bearings and all other details of the boundaries, and it shall also show the graphic scale.

    d. It shall show the dimensions, square footage of each lot to the nearest square foot or nearest one hundredth of an acre, bearings and curve data to include the radius, delta angle, length of arc, chord distance and chord bearing sufficient to enable the definite location of all lines and boundaries shown thereon, including public easements and areas dedicated for public use. Non-tangent curves and non-radial lines shall be labeled. Right of way parcel maps shall show bearings, distances and curve data for the right of way or the center line or base line and ties to right of way lines if from a base line.

    e. Where lots are shown thereon, those in each block shall be numbered consecutively. In municipalities where tax maps exist, block and lot designations shall conform therewith, if the municipal regulations so require. In counties which have adopted or shall adopt the local or block system of indices pursuant to sections 46:24-1 to 46:24-22 of the Revised Statutes, it shall have delineated and shown thereon the block boundary or boundaries and designations established by the board of commissioners of land records of such counties respecting the territory intended to be shown on such map.

    f. The reference meridian used for bearings on the map shall be shown graphically. The coordinate base, either assumed or based on the New Jersey Plane Coordinate System, shall be shown on the plat. A minimum of three corners distributed around the tract shall indicate the coordinate values.

    g. All municipal boundary lines crossing or adjacent to the territory intended to be shown shall be shown and designated.

    h. All natural and artificial watercourses, streams, shorelines and water boundaries and encroachment lines shall be shown. On right of way parcel maps all easements that affect the right of way shall be shown and dimensioned, including but not limited to slope easements and drainage.

    i. All permanent easements shall be shown and dimensioned including but not limited to sight right easements and utility easements.

    j. The map shall clearly show all monumentation as required by this act, including monuments found, monuments set, and monuments to be set. An indication shall be made where monumentation found has been reset. The outside tract line monuments of the original tract prior to any sectionalizing shall be set prior to the filing of the map and a certification added pursuant to subsection n. of this section. For purposes of this subsection "found corners" shall be considered monuments.

    k. It shall conform to such other technical design controls as may be required by the provisions of local ordinances, including but not limited to minimum street widths, minimum lot areas and minimum yard dimensions and should be shown as a chart on the plat.

    l. The name of the subdivision, name of the last property owner or owners, municipality and county shall be shown.

    m. The date of the survey shall be shown and the map shall be in accordance with the minimum survey detail requirements as promulgated by the State Board of Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors.

    n. There shall be endorsed thereon a certificate of a land surveyor, as follows:

    I hereby certify that to the best of my knowledge and belief this map and land survey dated ............................................. meets the minimum survey detail requirements as promulgated by the State Board of Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors and has been made under my supervision, and complies with the provisions of "the map filing law" and that the outbound monuments as shown have been found or set.

    (Include the following, if applicable)

    I do further certify that the monuments as designated and shown hereon have been set.

     ............................................................................

     Licensed Professional Land Surveyor and No.

                (Affix Seal)

If the land surveyor who prepares the map is different than the land surveyor who prepared the outbound survey, the following two certificates shall be added in lieu of the certificate above.

    I hereby certify to the best of my knowledge information and belief that this land survey dated has been made under my supervision and meets the minimum survey detail requirements, promulgated by the State Board of Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors and that the outbound monuments as shown have been found or set.

     ............................................................................

            Licensed Professional Land Surveyor and No.

                   (Affix seal)

    I hereby certify that this map has been made under my supervision and complies with the provisions of the "map filing law."

    (Including the following if applicable)

    I do further certify that the monuments as designated and shown hereon have been set.

     ............................................................................

            Licensed Professional Land Surveyor and No.

                   ( Affix seal)

    If interior monuments are to be set at a later date, the following requirements and endorsement shall be shown on the map.

    The interior monuments shown on this map shall be set within an appropriate time limit as provided for in the "Municipal Land Use Law," P.L.1975, c.291 (C.40:55D-1 et seq.) or local ordinance.

    I certify that a bond has been given to the municipality, guaranteeing the future setting of the monuments shown on this map and so designated.

     ............................................................................

                Municipal Clerk

    If the map is a right of way parcel map the project surveyor need only to certify that the monuments have been set or will be set.

    o. There shall be endorsed thereon a certificate of the municipal engineer as follows:

     I have carefully examined this map and to the best of my knowledge and belief find it conforms with the provisions of "the map filing law" resolution of approval and the municipal ordinances and requirements applicable thereto.

     ............................................................................

                Municipal Engineer

                (Affix Seal)

    p. There shall be submitted to the proper authority an affidavit setting forth the names and addresses of all the record title owners of the lands subdivided by said map and the consent in writing of all such owners to the approval of such map shall be required.

    q. If the map shows streets, avenues, roads, lanes or alleys, there shall be endorsed thereon a certificate by the municipal clerk that the municipal body has approved such streets, avenues, roads, lanes or alleys, except where such map is prepared and presented for filing by the State of New Jersey or any of its agencies. The map shall show all of the street names as approved by the municipality.

    r. Monuments are required on one side of the right of way only and shall be of metal detectable durable material at least 30 inches long. The top and bottom shall be a minimum of 4 inches square;if concrete, however it may be made of other durable metal detectable material specifically designed to be permanent, as approved by the State Board of Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors. All monuments shall include the identification of the professional land surveyor or firm. They shall be firmly set in the ground so as to be visible at the following control points; provided that in lieu of installation of the interior monuments, the municipality may accept bond with sufficient surety in form and amount to be determined by the governing body, conditioned upon the proper installation of said monuments upon the completion of the grading of the streets and roads shown on the map.

    (1) At each intersection of the outside boundary of the whole tract, with the right-of-way line of any side of an existing street.

    (2) At the intersection of the outside boundary of the whole tract with the right-of-way line on one side of a street being established by the map under consideration.

    (3) At one corner formed by the intersection of the right-of-way lines of any 2 streets at a T-type intersection.

    (4) At any two corners formed by the right-of-way lines of any two streets in an "X" or "Y" type intersection.

    (5) If the right-of-way lines of two streets are connected by a curve at an intersection, monuments shall be as stipulated in (3) and (4) of this subsection at one of the following control points:

    (a) The point of intersection of the prolongation of said lines.

    (b) The point of curvature of the connecting curve or,

    (c) The point of tangency of the connecting curve.

    (6) At the beginning and ending of all tangents on 1 side of any street.

    (7) At the point of compound curvature or point of reversed curvature where either curve has a radius equal to or greater than 100 feet. Complete curve data as indicated in subsection d. of this section shall be shown on both sides.

    (8) At intermediate points in the sidelines of a street between 2 adjacent street intersections in cases where the street deflects from a straight line or the line of sight between the adjacent intersections is obscured by a summit or other obstructions which are impractical to remove. This requirement may necessitate the setting of additional monuments at points not mentioned above. Bearings and distances between the monuments or coordinate values shall be indicated.

    (9) In cases where it is impossible to set a monument at any of the above designated points, a nearby reference monument shall be set and its relation to the designated point shall be clearly designated on the map; or the plate on the reference monument shall be stamped with the word "offset" and its relation to the monument shown on the filed map.

    (10) In areas where permanency of monuments may be better insured by off-setting the monuments from the property line, the municipal engineer may authorize such procedure; provided, that proper instrument sights may be obtained and complete off-set data is recorded on the map.

    (11) By the filing of a map in accordance with the provisions of "the map filing law," reasonable survey access to the monuments is granted, which shall not restrict in any way the use of the property by the landowner.

    (12) On right of way parcel maps, the monuments shall be set at the points of curvature, points of tangency, points of reverse curvature and points of compound curvature or the control base line or center line, if used, and be intervisible with a second monument.

    (13) On minor subdivisions a monument shall be set at each intersection of an outside boundary of the newly created lot(s) with the right of way line of any side of an existing street.

    L.1960,c.141,s.3; amended 1997, c.211, s.2.

46:23‑9.12.   Time for approval

The proper authority shall approve or disapprove such map within 45 days from the receipt thereof.

L.1960, c. 141, p. 667, s. 4.

46:23‑9.13.   Approval of map by municipality not acceptance of roads, streets or highways

   The approval of any map under this law by the proper authority shall in no way be construed as acceptance of any road, street or highway indicated thereon; nor shall any such approval in any way obligate the State of New Jersey or any county or municipality therein, to maintain or exercise jurisdiction over such roads, streets or highways.

L.1960, c. 131, p. 667, s. 5.

46:23‑9.14.   Prerequisites to filing

   The county recording officer shall not accept for filing any map unless it has endorsed thereon a certificate signed and sealed with the municipal seal by the municipal clerk or secretary of the planning board as the case may be, stating that the proper authority has approved the map or stating its exemption from approval which certificate shall state that said map complies with the provisions of this law and shall designate the day on or before which said map is required to be filed by the provisions of the applicable law and provided that said map is filed on or before said designated day.

   Said map shall also comply with the provisions of section 3, paragraphs a. and b. of this act in order to be accepted for filing.

L.1960, c. 141, p. 667, s. 6.

46:23‑9.15.   Filing and indexing of maps, fee

   The county recording officer of each county shall, when received by him for that purpose in accordance with the provisions of this law file in folios, slides, cabinets or other receptacles, maps of land lying in whole or in part in the county where the same are offered to be filed; provided that he shall retain the original tracing on translucent tracing cloth or its equivalent unmounted in an appropriate file or container, for preservation and use for reproduction purposes only, prints of which may be made available to the public at a reasonable cost. He shall endorse on the tracing and cloth print duplicate the date of the filing thereof in his office, and he shall provide and keep a proper index of all maps on file in his office. The county recording officer shall, for filing and indexing each map receive such fee as may be provided by law, except that when any map shall be presented for filing by the State of New Jersey, or any of its agencies no fee shall be charged for the filing thereof.

L.1960, c. 141, p. 669, s. 7.

46:23‑9.16.   Repeals

Sections 1 to 6, both inclusive, of chapter 358 of the laws of 1953 entitled "An act concerning the approval and filing of maps, supplementing chapter 23 of Title 46, and repealing sections 46:23‑1, 46:23‑2, 46:23‑3, 46:23‑4, 46:23‑5, 46:23‑6, 46:23‑7, 46:23‑8 and 46:23‑9, of the Revised Statutes" (approved August 10, 1953, P.L.1953, c. 358) are hereby repealed.

L.1960, c. 141, p. 669, s. 8.

46:23‑10.         Duplicates of maps in cities having atlases or block maps filed with recording officer and transmitted to proper city officer

Whenever any map of lands situate in any city of this state that has or may have an atlas, or block map, upon which shall be plotted the lots or subdivision of lots of lands, is filed in the office of the county recording officer, or other officer, whose duty it is to record and file such maps, the person filing the same shall file a duplicate thereof, and the officer receiving such map shall indorse on such duplicate the time of recording and filing the original and deliver such duplicate to the officer of such city having charge of such city atlas or block map.

This section shall have no application to maps filed by commissioners appointed to assess benefits derived from the construction of sewers, drains or other municipal improvements.

46:23‑11.         Approval and filing of duplicates of maps identical with maps already filed except as to style or title thereof; effect

Whenever there has been or may be duly filed in the office of the county recording officer in any county maps of lands, and there have been made duplicate copies thereof, which copies have been delineated identically with the maps so filed, except for the style or title thereof, and such duplicate maps have not been filed in the office of such county recording officer, and there have been made conveyances of lands, or interests therein, and other instruments of similar nature, under which the lands intended to be conveyed or liened, have been described by reference to such unfiled map, the governing body of any municipality within this state and located in any such county may provide for the filing of a duplicate of such map delineated identically with the filed map, even though the title or style of the map may be in different form from the filed map approved by such municipality in the manner prescribed by law; but any such approval and filing shall not constitute a dedication of the streets or lot locations as therein delineated; and any such approval and filing of any such map shall be merely for the identification of the lands therefore conveyed or liened, which approval shall be stated in the resolution adopted by the governing body approving such maps.

This above Law has been recently modified per P.L. 1999, Chapter 258, approved October 15,1999, Assembly, No. 3025 .

To insure the most recent materials are referenced it is directed that all users of this material research the most recent Law at www.state.nj.u s, and  reference the DOT web site at www.state.nj.us\transportation.

 

Addendix B - Feature Code List For Electronic Data CollectionBack to top

Preference Table


Alignments

100

Bench Mark

101

Bench Mark-Temporary

102

Monument-NJDOT

103

Monument-USCGS

104

Point-Angle

105

Point-Control

106

Point-Traverse

107

Point-Misc.

Topo (Natural)

200

Bush-Shrub

201

Cultivated Field

202

Grass

203

Orchard

204

Hedge-Line

205

Tree-Conifer

206

Tree-Deciduous

207

Wood/Tree Line

208

Dirt

209

Gravel/Stone

Topo (Bridge)

300

Crib Wall-Bottom

301

Crib Wall-Top

302

Joint Longitudinal

303

Joint Transverse

304

Parapet

305

Pier-Column

306

Pier-Corner

307

Retaining Wall-Bottom

308

Retaining Wall-Top

309

Scupper

310

Sound Wall-Bottom

311

Structure-Bottom

312

Structure-Top

Topo (Roadway)

325

Attenuator-Impact

326

BenchMark -Topo

327

Benchmark-Temp-Topo

328

Boring

329

Curb-Depressed-Drive

330

Curb-Depressed-Handicap

331

Driveway-Bituminuous

332

Driveway-Concrete

333

Driveway-Dirt

334

Driveway-Gravel

335

Drive-Stone

336

Fence-Chain Link

337

Fence-Gate

338

Fence-Wire

339

Fence-Wood

340

Guide Rail-Anchor

341

Guide Rail-BCT

342

Guide Rail-Left

343

Guide Rail-Right

344

Guide Rail-Wire Rope

345

Island Concrete

346

Monument-Box

347

Monument-NJDOT-Topo

348

Monument-USCGS-Topo

349

Sidewalk-Bituminuous

350

Sidewalk-Concrete

351

Sign

352

Sign-Bridge

353

Sign-Cantilever

354

Sign-Delineator

355

Sign-MileMark

356

Silt Fence

357

Slab-Approach

358

Slab-Concrete

359

Slab-Transition

Topo (Other)

375

Billboard

376

Cesspool Cover

377

Corner-Building

378

Corner-Porch

379

Corner-Steps

380

Disposal Bed

381

Pool

382

Septic Tank

383

Flag-Pole

384

Gas Valve

385

Gas-Pump

386

Mail-Box

387

Parking Meter

388

Railroad Ties

389

Well

390

Wood/Metal Post

391

Vent-Pipes

392

Oil Filler Valve

Drainage

400

Culvert-Corner-Bottom

401

Culvert-Corner-Top

402

Flume

403

Riprap

404

Flared End Section

405

HeadWall (Max 900mm Pipe)

406

HeadWall w/Apron (Max 900mm Pipe)

407

HeadWall-Bottom (Max 900mm Pipe)

408

HeadWall-Top (Max 900mm Pipe)

409

Headwall-RCES

410

Inlet-Type "A"

411

Inlet-Type  "B"

412

Inlet-Type  "D1"

413

Inlet-Type  "D2"

414

Inlet-Type  "E"

415

Inlet-Type-"Unknown"

416

Manhole-NJDOT-Storm

417

Manhole-Other-Storm

418

Pipe (Note Size & Type)

419

Pipe-Centerline-Top

420

Pipe-Invert

421

Roof-Drain

422

Slotted-Drain

423

Under Ground Vault-Drainage

Right of Way

700

Corner-Iron Pipe

701

Easement

702

Monument-Property

703

Property-Line

704

ROW Line-Access

705

ROW Line-NoAccess

347

Monument-NJDOT

348

Monument-USCGS

Traffic Stripe

750

Gore Stripe

751

100mm  Dashed

752

100mm  Solid White

753

100mm  Solid Yellow

754

Double Yellow

755

200mm  Solid White

756

200mm  Solid Yellow

Utilities

500

Booth-Telephone

501

Box-Fire

502

Box Police

503

Cabinet-Meter

504

Hydrant

505

Junction Box

506

Junction Box w/Light

507

Loop Detector

508

Manhole-NJDOT-Electric

509

Manhole-Other-Electric

510

Manhole-Sanitary

511

Manhole-Telephone

512

Manhole-Unknown

513

Pavement Marking-Electric

514

Pavement Marking-Gas

515

Pavement Marking-Telephone

516

Pavement Marking-Water

517

Pole-Guy Wire

518

Pole-Light

519

Pole-Utility

520

Pole-Utility w/Light

521

Signal-Railroad

522

Signal-Traffic

523

Test Pit

524

Traffic Control Box

525

Under Ground Vault-Cable

526

Under Ground Vault-Elect.

527

Under Ground Vault-Gas

528

Under Ground Vault-Sani

529

Under Ground Vault-Tele.

530

Under Ground Vault-Water

531

Utility Marker

532

Valve-Gas

533

Valve-Water

534

Vent-Gas

535

Vent-Other

536

Vent-Sewer

537

Fiber Optic J.B.

538

Pavement Marking-Cable T.V.

539

Valve-Unknown

Breaklines

600

Barrier Curb-Gutter

601

Barrier Curb-Reveal

602

Barrier Curb-Top

603

Breakline

604

Curb-Bituminuous-Top

605

Curb-Concrete-Top

606

Curb-Gutter-Left

607

Curb-Gutter-Right

608

Bituminuous Pavement

609

Concrete Pavement

610

Bulkhead

611

Joint

612

Lane

613

Shoulder

614

Railroad-Top of Rail

615

Rock-Bottom

616

Rock-Top

617

Rock-Intermediate

618

Slope-Bottom

619

Slope-Top

620

Slope-Misc.

621

Swale-Bottom

622

Swale-Top

623

Swale-Misc.

624

Swamp-Edge

625

Swamp-Misc.

626

Water-Bottom of Bank

627

Water-Top of Bank

628

Water-Surface

629

Water-Bed

999

Unknown Feature

APPENDIX C
Miscellaneous Check Lists

Geodetic Survey

Quality Assurance Checklist

******Sample******

Job No./ Project No.                         2200168

Project Description and Location:      Route 72 Evacuation Route Roadway Improvements GPS Project

Date(s) Survey Performed:               11/18/2005, 02/22/2006, 02/23/2006,

                                                        03/06/2006 and 03/07/2006

                                                                                Yes   No    N/A

requirements for Order of Control utilized                               x

Least Squares

14. Control Diagram (Horizontal and Vertical

control identified)                                                   x             

15. State Plane Coordinates List for Horizontal

Control                                                                      x             

Survey Report

                                                                                Yes   No    N/A

16. Quality Control Checklist                                          x             

Comments: Explanation must be provided for all items checked N/A.

                                                Certification:  ________________________

                                                                        Supervising Engineer II


Geodetic Survey

Quality Control Checklist

*****Sample*****

Job No./Project No.                                  2200168

Project Description and Location:           Route 72 Evacuation Route Roadway

Improvements GPS Project

Date(s) Survey Performed:                           11/18/2005, 02/22/2006, 02/23/2006,

                                                                                    03/06/2006 and 03/07/2006

Yes

No

n/a

FGCC Guidelines “Geometric Geodetic Accuracy Standards and Specifications for Using GPS Relative Positioning Techniques” Version 5.0 dated May 11, 1988; reprinted with corrections, August 1, 1989 utilized for project or most current edition.

x

FGCC Guidelines “ Standards and Specifications for Geodetic Control Networks”, September 1984 utilized for project or most current edition.

x

Equipment Utilized                Model No.                                                               Serial No.

Sensor                                      Leica Geosystems SR 530                                0037050

Sensor                                      Leica Geosystems SR 530                                      0037051

Sensor                                      Leica Geosystems SR 530                                      0037074

Sensor                                      Leica Geosystems SR 530                                      0037123

Sensor                                      Leica Geosystems SR 530                                      133646

Antenna                                            Leica Geosystems AT 502                                      7816

Antenna                                   Leica Geosystems AT 502                                      8061

Antenna                                   Leica Geosystems AT 502                                      8092

Antenna                                   Leica Geosystems AT 502                                      8094

Antenna                                   Leica Geosystems AT 502                                      14856

Seco 2 Meter fixed-height poles                            (1)

Pacific Crest RTK Radios                     (2)

Project Personnel         Name                             Title                     Position

                             Frederick A. Czepiga       Principal Engineer  Analysis/Project Report

                                    Ronald J. Kuzma             Principal Engineer  Operator

                             Edward Berchtold            Eng. Technician     Operator

                             Michael V. Iorio               Eng. Technician     Operator

                                Edward Ogonowski                   Eng. Technician     Operator

                             Steve Miller                     Eng. Technician     Operator

Project Control Monumentation

                                                                                                                        Yes     No      n/a

                Permanent                                                  x

                        Semi-Permanent                                                                 x

                        Outside Future Construction Limits                              x

                        Within R.O.W.                                                       x

                        3 Reference Ties                                                                                         x

                        Intervisible Pair at Project Limits                            x

Comments:

                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                       


Survey Report QA Check List

YES

NO

N/A

1

Survey Report signed and sealed by licensed surveyor

2

Supplemental Survey Report signed and sealed by licensed surveyor

3

Prime consultant has reviewed and concurs with sub-consultant's Survey Report

4

Point of Contact supplied in Survey Report

5

Regional Survey Office contacted for any existing control in project area

6

Copy of Article 44 was supplied to field personnel

7

Scope of work included in Survey Report

8

Equipment service record included in Survey Report

9

Equipment serial numbers included in Survey Report

10

Horizontal datum used is New Jersey State Plane Coordinate System (NJSPCS)

11

List of horizontal monuments with stations and coordinates

12

Year of last adjustment included in horizontal datum description

13

Vertical datum used is North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88)

14

List of vertical benchmarks with stations and elevations

15

Control traverse submitted and approved by NJDOT prior to commencing survey for base map, and  the survey traverse and control network meet 2nd Order requirements

16

Survey Report explains how road baseline(s) were re-established

17

Survey Report explains how ROW was established

18

Existing road baselines and ROW tied to project control

19

All measurements are to a minimum of two (2) decimal points

20

Height set above ground of ties shown on tie sketch

21

Data processing software identified in Survey Report

22

All minimum standards, as outline in NJDOT Survey Manual have been met or exceeded

NOTE: All no and N/A require an explanation.

Appendix D

Metrication Issues

Basic Metric Information


Background

The modern metric system (Systeme Intenationale or SI system) has been the international standard of measurement since it was adopted by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960.

The Metric Usage Act of 1975, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, requires that the metric system be used in all federal procurement, grants, and business-related activities to the extent feasible by September 30, 1992. The intent of the law is to make the United States more competitive in international trade by bringing its measurement system into line with that of the rest of the world. Executive Order 12770 of July 1991, Metric Usage in Government Programs, requires federal agencies to develop specific timetables and milestones for the transition to the metric system. Federal agencies involved in construction generally agreed to institute the use of metric measures in the design of all federal construction by January 1994.

The United States is the only industrialized country on earth that does not use the metric system.

The metric system is more than just the International System of Units (SI). In international trade, the metric system refers to the use of product standards and preferred sizes that are accepted by industries throughout the world. It is, therefore, essential that goods manufactured in the United States be built to metric specifications to be competitive in the international marketplace.

What Are Some Of The Basic Si Units

Some of the fundamental items are:

Meter (m): The basic unit for the measurement of length in the metric system is the meter. It is slightly longer than a yard(39.37 Inches)and generally used for measuring short distances. The length of a football field is approximately 91 m.

Kilometer (km): The metric unit used to denote longer distances is the kilometer. The kilometer is equal to 1000 meters and is slightly longer than half of a mile.

Millimeter (mm): Applied to the measurement of small distances or thicknesses is the millimeter. The millimeter is equal to one thousandth of a meter, or 0.001 meter. An inch is approximately 25 mm. 

Square meter (m2): The unit commonly used for the measurement of area is the square meter. A square meter is approximately 20% larger in area than a square yard. A room ten feet long and ten feet wide has a floor area of approximately 9 m2.

Hectare (ha): To express the area of land or bodies of water use the hectare. A hectare is equal to 10 000 m2, which is approximately 2.5 acres.

Cubic Meter (m3): The unit of volume in the metric system is the cubic meter. The cubic meter has approximately 30% more volume than a cubic yard.

Liter (L): The unit that is used for the measurement of liquids or gasses is the liter. A liter is slightly more than a quart. Ever purchased a soft drink in a 2 L bottle?

Kilogram (kg): The basic unit that is used to express the mass of large items is the kilogram. A kilogram is a little more than two pounds.

Gram (g): The unit used to express the mass of small items is the gram. A gram is equivalent to one thousandth of a kilogram (0.001 kg). The mass of a penny is about 3g.

Metric ton (t): Used to express the mass of very large items or quantities, the metric ton. The metric ton is equivalent to 1000 kg, or approximately 2200 pounds.Second (s): The second is the fundamental unit of time and is the same unit as currently used in everyday terminology.

Temperature (C): Widely used in the measurement of temperature is the degree Celsius (C°). On a hot summer day when the temperature is 95 F (Fahrenheit scale), the metric equivalent would be 35 C°.

Velocity (km/h): Velocity, or speed, is expressed in kilometers per hour (km/h). A residential speed limit of 25 miles per hour (mph) is approximately 40 km/h.

Soft Metric Conversion Versus Hard Metric Conversion

Soft conversion is the result of a mathematical conversion of inch-pounds to SI equivalents. ASTM defines soft conversion as the "process of changing the description of an existing measurement to acceptable metric units without a significant change in size or magnitude." Hard conversion, on the other hand, is the "process of changing the description of an existing measurement to acceptable metric units, but with a change in the size of an existing quantity to obtain standard, convenient, rounded or rationalized metric dimensions."

Simple mathematical dimensional conversions should be avoided when at all possible. If "soft conversions" are made a "rational equivalent" would be more appropriate. For example, 12 inches (exactly 304.8 mm) is not a clean, rational number. It should be rounded to 300 mm to facilitate the cleanest construction possible.

Other common measurements would be rounded to a rational equivalent. Consider the following:


  • Quanity
  • From English Units
  • To Metric Units
  • Multiply By
  • Length
  • mile
    yard
    foot
    foot
    inch
  • Km
    m
    m
    mm
    mm
  • 1.609 344
    0.914 4
    0.304 8
    304.8
    25.4
  • Area square mile
  • acre
    square yard
    square foot
    square inch
  • km²
    ha (10 000 m²)


    mm²
  • 2.590
    0.404 685 6
    0.836 127 36
    0.092 903 04
    645.16
  • Volume
  • cubic yard
    cubic foot
    cubic foot
    gallon
    cubic inch


  • L (1000 cm³)
    L (1000 cm³)
    mm³
  • 0.764 555
    0.028 316 8
    28.316 85
    3.785 41
    16 387.064
  • Mass
  • lb
    ton (2000 lb)
  • Kg
    metric ton (1000 kg)
  • 0.453 592
    0.907 184
  • Force
  • lb
  • N
  • 4.448 22
  • Pressure, stress
  • psi
  • kPa
  • 6.894 76
  • Torque
  • in-lb
    ft-lb
  • N·m
    N·m
  • 0.112 98
    1.355 82

In almost every case, the products and material strengths are not changing, however the nomenclature used to specify these particular products is changing. This constantly changing criteria and nomenclature can turn even the simplest metric conversion project into a difficult one. Common sense and good engineering judgement must be used!

Conversion And Rounding

Example: Precision of a 6 inch stirring rod is estimated at about 1/2 in (±1/4 in) or, converted, 12.7 mm. The converted dimension, 152.4 mm, should be rounded to the nearest 10 mm and shown as 150 mm.

Example: A length of 125 ft converts exactly to 38.1 m. But if the 125 ft length was obtained by rounding to the nearest 5 ft, the conversion should be given as 38 m; if it had been obtained by rounding to the nearest 25 ft, the result should be rounded to 40 m.

Example: When converting 3 feet 2 9/16 inches to meters (9/16” = 0.5625”):

(3 x 0.3048)+(2.5625 x 0.0254) = 0.979 487 5 m, rounds to 0.979 mI

Significant Digits

Example: The value 4 in. may represent 4, 4.0, 4.00, 4.000 or 4.0000 in.

Example: Measured to the nearest 1 m, a recorded distance of 157 m would have three significant digits. Measured to the nearest 0.1 m, a distance of 157.4 m would have four significant digits.

Example: For the problem: Round the numbers one significant digit to the right of the least precise number and take the sum as follows:

                                163 000 000               163 000 000

                                217 885 000               217 900 000

                                  96 432 768                 96 400 000

                                477 317 768               477 300 000

(Round the total to 477 000 000 as called for by the rule)

Example: 113.2 x 1.43 = 161.876         – round to 162 because 1.43 has three significant digits

             113.2 ÷ 1.43 = 79.160 8         – round to 79.2 for same reason.

Rounding Values

When the first digit discarded is less than 5, the last digit retained is not changed.

Example: 3.463 25, rounded to four digits would be 3.463; if rounded to three digits, 3.46.

Example: 8.376 52, rounded to four digits would be 8.377; if rounded to three digits 8.38.

Example: 4.365, rounded to three digits becomes 4.36. The number 4.355 would round to the same value, 4.36, if rounded to three digits.

How Will This Effect Engineering?

Drawing units will change from feet and inches to millimeters for all building dimensions and to meters for large site plans and civil engineering drawings; meters are always carried to one, two or three decimal places depending on the accuracy required. Drawing scales will change from 1inch = x feet–yinch (1"=1'-8") to true ratios (1:20). Drawing sizes will be changed to the standard ISO metric drawing sizes. Drawings should be presented with only metric units. Typically, all dimensions are shown in millimeters, however, the suffix mm is not used, nor needed. Currently, most products that go into concrete work can be accomplished with either soft or hard metric conversions. At this time, reinforcing steel is still specified using the bar number, however, bar diameters in millimeters may eventually be used. Metric design guides for concrete design are available through the American Concrete Institute. Most products associated with steel construction have undergone soft metric conversions. Metric steel shape tables and design guides are available through the American Institute of Steel Construction.

One obvious advantage to the metric system is that metric dimensions can easily be checked with a calculator. By eliminating the cumbersome feet and inches, addition and conversion errors can be reduced significantly. The use of dual dimensions is discouraged since dual dimensioning takes time, double the change for errors, makes drawings more confusing and the impedes the learning process. Plans are usually presented in meters with sections and details presented in millimeters. Specifications will require either soft or hard metric conversions. Units of measure from feet and inches should be converted to millimeters for linear dimensions, from square feet to square meters for area, and from cubic yards to cubic meters for volume (except use liters for fluid volumes). Again, dual units are discouraged except when the use of an inch-pound unit of measure serves to clarify an otherwise unfamiliar metric measure, then place the inch-pound unit in parentheses after the metric unit. Calculations should be performed solely in metric units. This will eliminate the possibility of conversion errors. Many technical manuals and codes are currently available in their metric equivalents. Cost estimates should also be prepared in metric units. Many cost estimating guides are now being prepared in both English and metric units of measure.

What Effect Will This Have On Construction?

Recent construction awards indicate that there is no detectable cost premium for using metric units. Construction contractors find that the use of metric units eliminates most dimensional construction errors since it is easier to use. By substituting metric measuring tapes, some contractors have found that very little effort and training was required to make the conversion from English to metric units.

How Will This Effect The General Public?

Most people today purchase metric packaged products and don't even know it. Almost all soft drinks are sold in liter containers, and have been for several years. Items purchased in grocery stores have displayed a dual system of volume and weights measurements for nearly 10 years. School children are now being taught both systems of measurement in the public school system and will be the first to readily accept either form of measurement. Car speedometers have been provided in both miles per hour and kilometers per hour for several years. The metric system of measurements have been introduced in our daily lives without our even realizing it. Once a conscious effort is made to convert to the metric system of measurements, the more widely accepted the metric system will become. Many Americans each year travel abroad and are immersed not only in a foreign culture, but the metric system of measurements. Speed limits are given in kilometers per hour and weights are given in kilograms. Although it may take some getting used to, many of these travelers eventually feel that a system based on a simple decimal system is easier to understand and is easier to use. To visualize metric equivalents, visualize the following:

What's Next?

One of the largest obstacles to overcome is the inherent dislike for anything different. Most practicing engineers and architects have a real dislike for metric units because they loose their intuition and don't have a "feel" for what a value means in another system of measurements. For example, many structural and civil engineers know, and have a good physical sense of what 100 psf or 4000 psi means. However, convert 4000 psi to 27.5 MPa, and engineers and architects are confronted with a system of measurement that is completely foreign to them. Education and practice is required in order for engineers and architects to feel comfortable with metric units and regain their sense of "feel" for what is right. One of the biggest pitfalls in metric conversion will be to rely on soft conversions and not hard conversions. The faster one can use metric units from beginning to end, the sooner one will achieve the confidence needed to work with metric units.

Much effort in needed in the area of education for engineers and architects. The federal government has made a concerted effort to bring metrication to fabrication and construction. However, if engineers and architects are unwilling or unable to perform the necessary calculations and contract drawings in metric units, it will take years before the metrication process can be completed. Metrication is important for our future economic survivability in an ever shrinking global economy. Engineers have been called upon time and time again to solve problems, this is not one that they should shy away from.

References:

Appendix E -Surveying and Transportation Internet Resources

Surveying and Transportation Related Internet Resources

Surveying

http://cesgi1.city.ac.uk/weblists/

Web servers for Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, & Land Surveying

http://gdim.geod.emr.ca/~craymer/#tcg

Mike Craymer's Home Page

http://homepage.interaccess.com/~maynard/

Land Surveying and Geomatics: On-Line Resources

http://homepage.interaccess.com/~maynard/groups.htm

NewsGroups and FAQs

http://megahertz.njit.edu/~survey/

NJIT's Surveying Program

http://www.anzlic.org.au/icsm/sp1/contents.htm

Recommended practices for surveying

http://www.auslig.gov.au/welcome.htm

Australian surveying and LI group

http://www.cenews.com/

CE News

http://www.geocan.NRCan.gc.ca/geomatics/

GIS & GPS Technology page

http://www.isaust.org.au/

The Institution of Surveyors, Australia

http://www.landsurveyor.com/

Land Surveyors Online

http://www.leica.com/surv-sys/index.asp

Leica Surveying Group Homepage

http://www.lsrp.com/

Land Surveyor Reference Page

http://www.vfmeyer.com/frames.htm

Land Surveying Info

Photogrammetry

ftp://www.fgdc.gov/pub/standards/

Directory of /pub/standards

http://nsdi.usgs.gov/nsdi/products/doq.html

USGS NSDI Clearinghouse DOQ

http://tresc.dot.ca.gov/Engineering_Technology/GeometronicsBranch/PHOTOGRAMMETRY.html

California DOT Photogrammetry

http://www.asprs.org/asprs/resources/standards/daps/daps.html

ASPRS Draft Aerial Photography Standard

http://www.c3.lanl.gov/~bradley/mrsid/bay_area/

USGS Bay Area Digital Orthophoto

http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Aerial/index.htm

Office of Aerial Engineering

http://www.esri.com/base/common/userconf/proc95/to150/p124.html

Digital Orthophotography and GIS

http://www-nmd.usgs.gov/metadata/doq.html

USGS 3.75 Minute, 1:12,000 DOQ

http://wwwsgi.ursus.maine.edu/gisweb/spatdb/gis-lis/gi94093.html

A national digital orthophoto program

GPS - General

http://galaxy.einet.net/editors/john-beadles/introgps.htm

Introduction to GPS Applications

http://gauss.gge.unb.ca/gps.guidelines.html

GPS Guidelines (Maritime Canada)

http://www.aero.org/publications/GPSPRIMER/GPSPRMR.html

The Global Positioning System

http://www.ashtech.com/

Welcome to Ashtech

http://www.ashtech.com/pages/gps/glossary.html

Ashtech GPS/GIS/LIS Glossary Of Terms

http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/~srmb/gps_ad.htm

GPS Specs and guidelines, BC

http://www.gpsworld.com/

GPS World Home Page

http://www.gsys.com/gpsnet/index.html

GPS for Land Surveyors

http://www.inmet.com/~pwt/gps_gen.html

GPS General Information Sites

http://www.navcen.uscg.mil/GPS/reports/sigspec/sigspec.htm

GPS Signal Specifications

http://www.navcen.uscg.mil/navcen.htm

US Coast Guard Navigation Center GPS, DGPS, LORAN, OMEGA, LNM

http://www.questsystems.com/qs005.htm

GPS Information Links on the WWW

http://www.technologyplus.com/gps/

The GPS Home Page

http://www.tmpo.dma.gov:8001/

Terrain Modeling Project Office

http://www.trimble.com/

Trimble Navigation: The GPS Solution

http://www.trimble.com/gps/nfsections/howworks/aa_hw1.htm

Trimble – How GPS works

http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/gps/gps.html

GPS notes at uTexas

http://www.volpe.dot.gov/gps/

GPS – at DOT

GPS – Geodesy

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/

National Geodetic Survey

http://www.olld.nos.noaa.gov/bench.html

NOAA Published Benchmark Sheets

http://164.214.2.59/index.html

National Imagery and Mapping Agency (formarly DMA)

http://164.214.2.59/geospatial/products/GandG/geolay/toc.htm

Glossary of Geodetic Terms from DMA

http://www.tec.army.mil/TD/software.html

US Army Tech Center

http://www.nrc.ca/inms/cnmse.html

Canada NRC

http://www.spatial.maine.edu/~leick/alpha.htm

Leick GPS Home Page

http://lupus.gsfc.nasa.gov/vlbi.html

VLBI

GPS – Time and ITRF

ftp://maia.usno.navy.mil/ser7/ser7.dat

ITRF and related data

http://riemann.usno.navy.mil/AA/data/online.html

Data Online

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/?rwin=UTC

Directorate of Time

http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/leapsec.html

Leap Seconds

GIS General

Http://deathstar.rutgers.edu/projects/smac/resource.html

New Jersey GIS Resource Guide

Http://everest.hunter.cuny.edu/mp/

Map Projection Home Page

http://geog.gmu.edu/gess/jwc/cart2.html

Cartography Resources on the Web

Http://head-smashed-in.ccm.emr.ca/naismap/naismap.html

NAISMap Home Page

http://kaos.erin.gov.au/gis/gis_gloss.html

GIS and Metadata Glossary

http://ogis.org/

OpenGIS

http://www.census.gov/geo/www/faq-index.html

GIS FAQ

http://www.csn.net/gis/ores/gis/index.html

Online Resources for Earth Scientists

http://www.esri.com/

ESRI = The Leading GIS Software

Http://www.fgdc.gov/

Federal Geographic Data Committee

http://www.hdm.com/gis3.htm

Great GIS Net Sites!

Http://www.specsci.com/gis_resource/geolinks.html

Great GIS-Related Resources

http://www.urisa.org/glossary/

Glossary of Terms

Http://www.usgs.gov/

US Geological Survey

Http://www.wessex.com/

Wessex Inc.

http://www-nmd.usgs.gov/www/ti/DEM/standards_dem.html

Standards for DEM

GIS – Data

http://164.214.2.59/nimahome.html

NIMA Public Home Page (Image Data)

http://mercury.census.gov:80/about.html

TMS About Tiger Data

http://nsdi.usgs.gov/nsdi/wais/maps/dlg24.html

1:24,000-scale Digital Line Graphs

http://www.census.gov/ftp/pub/geo/www/tiger/

The TIGER Page

http://www.usps.gov/ncsc/lookups/lookup_ctystzip.html

Post office zip codes

GIS - Transportation

http://www.bts.gov/gis/

BTS Geographic Information Services

http://www.bts.gov/gis/reference/apts.html

APTS Map Database User Requirements Specification

http://www.upa.pdx.edu/CUS/contents.html

Papers Portland St. University on GIS-T

GIS – Education

http://www.cfm.ohio-state.edu/homepage.html

OSU Center for Mapping home page

http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/pubs/pubs_list.html

NCGIA Publications List

http://www.swt.edu/~bb09002/class/gis.html

SWT GIS Class Notes

http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/contents.html

The Geographer's Craft Project

http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/gcraft/notes/notes.html

Notes for GIS and The Geographer's Craft

Maps

http://city.net/indexes/top_maps.html

Excite City.Net Top Maps

http://mapweb.parc.xerox.com/map/

Xerox PARC Map Viewer

http://www.cedar.buffalo.edu/AdServ/maps.html

Street Maps on the Net

http://www.mapquest.com/

MapQuest! Welcome!

http://www.vicinity.com/yahoo/

Yahoo! Maps

DOTs

http://www.dot.gov/internet/usadots.html

US State DOT Web Sites

http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/framed/njdot.htm

NJ-DOT

Transportation – General

http://al.al.autometric.com/main/

AASHTO Homepage

http://ota.fhwa.dot.gov/pubs/index.html

FHWY Publications on the Web

http://www.dot.gov/

US DOT

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/

FHWA Home Page

http://www.nas.edu/trb/

TRB Home Page

http://www.tfhrc.gov/

Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center Web Site

Metrication Issues

http://lamar.ColoState.EDU/~hillger/

U.S. Metric Association (USMA)

http://www.dot.state.ak.us/external/state_wide/dnc/eos.d/online.html

Downloads of Metric Manuals

http://www.mdt.mt.gov/metric/mtmetric.htm

Montana State Metrics

Http://www.pilot.infi.net/~cstone/asceref0.htm

Metrication - Who, What, When, Where and Why!

Http://www.pilot.infi.net/~cstone/asceref7.htm

Metric Conversion Pitfalls

Http://www.pilot.infi.net/~cstone/com_i_1.htm

ASCE Metric References

Http://www.pilot.infi.net/~cstone/mfacts2.htm

Metrics Facts and Figures

http://www.shaban.com/

The 1-Step metric conversion calculator

http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/metrics/

WSDOT Metrics Page

http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Metrics/factors.htm

Metrics factors

New Jersey State sites

http://www.nasire.org/

State Info Resources Web Site

http://www.state.nj.us/

New Jersey Home Page

http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/framed/njdot.htm

njdot

http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/folio.pgi/statutes.NFO?

New Jersey Permanent Statutes Database

http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/html/njleg.htm

New Jersey State Legislature

http://www.yahoo.com/Regional/U_S__States/New_Jersey/

Yahoo! - Regional:U.S. States:New Jersey

Learn more about the Internet

Http://uu-gna.mit.edu:8001/uu-gna/text/internet/notes/index.html

The Internet Text Project

http://world.std.com/~walthowe/ilrntree.html

Walt Howe's Internet Learning Center

http://www.anonymizer.com/

Conceal your computer while browsing

http://www.cookiecentral.com/demomain.htm

More Information On Cookies

http://www.cybergate.net/noframes/noframe_understanding.html

Understanding the Internet

Http://www.davesite.com/webstation/html/

HTML: Interactive Tutorial for Beginners

Http://www.delphi.com/navnet/

Navigating the Net

Http://www.delphi.com/navnet/privacy.html

Privacy: Information about you on the net

http://www.dreamscape.com/frankvad/internet.html

Virtual Internet Guide

Http://www.ed.gov/pubs/parents/internet/

Parents Guide to the Internet

http://www.hamline.edu/library/bush/handouts/comparisons.html

Understanding and comparing search engines

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/FindInfo.html

Finding Information on the Internet: A TUTORIAL

Http://www.massnetworks.org/~nicoley/tutorial/tutorial.html

Tutorial: Introduction to the Internet for Teachers

Http://www.pbs.org/uti/begin.html

Using and Understanding the Internet

http://www.screen.com/start/guide/default.html

Life on the Internet: Exploring the Internet

Http://www.ttu.edu/newslist/newsgroups.html

Newsgroups available

Http://www2.famvid.com/i101/internet101.html

Internet 101: Welcome!

Http://www-spires.slac.stanford.edu/FIND/internet.html

Introduction to the Internet

Miscellaneous Interests

http://www.phys.virginia.edu/education/teaching/HowThingsWork/

How Things Work

http://www.cnet.com/Content/Features/Howto/?st.cn.gp.tb.fe

CNET Features - How To

For more information

Searching for information on the Internet can produce peculiar results. Some searches will end up with no information on the key words that you submit to the search engine, while other will come up with a long list of sites that are not relevant to the information you are looking for. In addition, the using the same key words for a search with different search engines such as Yahoo, Excite, Infoseek, Lycos, Alta Vista, etc. each one of them will produce different results. Therefore, it is advantageous to use multi engine search tools that will submit your search to several different search engines. Usually, the results of such a search produce better results and more useful information.

Examples of Multi-Engine Search Tools:

http://www.dogpile.com/

http://www.highway61.com/

http://www.metacrawler.com/home.html

http://www.albany.net/allinone/

http://www.searchinsider.com/sites.html

http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~dreiling/smartform.html

http://www.cnde.iastate.edu/search.html

Appendix F -Surveying Terms and Glossary

Glossary (Edited from http://www.auslig.gov.au/corpinfo/info/glossary.htm)

AMI Active Microwave Instrument - active sensing system on-board ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites which consists of two separate radars, operating at a frequency of 5.3ghz (c-band) with three modes of operation - a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for image and wave mode and a three antenna Wind Scatterometer.

AOS - Acquisition of Signal.

ARC/INFO - GIS Software.

Array Sensor - an imaging device employing an array of electronically sampled detectors in the focal plane.

Ascending node - the point on a satellite's orbit when a satellite crosses the Earth's Equatorial plane from South to North.

Atmospheric correction - image processing procedure that compensates for the effects of scattered and absorbed radiation by the atmosphere.

Attribute accuracy - component of data quality describing the likelihood of an attribute of a spatial feature being erroneous.

AUTOCAD - Drafting Software.

Automated cartography - the preparation and presentation of maps using machines controlled by computers.

AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - sensor on-board the NOAA series of satellites.

Azimuth - geographic orientation of a line given as an angle measurement in degrees clockwise from north.

Azimuth range - for radar images this term represents the distance measured along a line between the limits of the radar beam in the direction of the satellite or aircraft.

Band - a selection of a wavelength interval in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Band-pass filter - a wave filter that has a single transmission band extending from a lower cutoff frequency greater than zero to a finite upper cutoff frequency.

Bandwidth - the number of cycles per second between the limits of a frequency band. usually associated with topographic mapping covering country or region at different scales.

Bathymetric surveying - is the measure of the depth and shape of the ocean floor. Usually associated with the mapping of the resources of the sea bed.

BMP - an abbreviation for Windows Bitmap. BMP is a common raster data format supported by many Microsoft Windows products and applications.

Brightness - the attribute of visual perception in accordance with which an area appears to emit more or less light.

Cadastral survey - a survey of the boundaries of land parcels.

Cadastre - a public register usually recording the quantity, value and ownership of land parcels in a country or jurisdiction.

Calibration - the act or process of comparing certain specific measurements in an instrument with a standard.

Cartography - the art and science of producing maps, charts and other representations to spatial relationships.

CCD Charged Coupled Device - a device in which electrons are stored at the surface of a semiconductor.

CCRS - Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing

Cell - an area on the ground from which electromagnetic radiation is emitted or reflected.

CEOS - Committee on Earth Observation Satellites

Change detection - sensing of environmental changes.

Characteristic curve - a curve showing the relationship between exposure and resulting density in a photograph image, usually plotted as density (D) against the logarithm of the exposure (log E) in candela- meter-seconds. It is also called the H and D curve, the sensitometric curve, and the D log E.

Chemical fog - density produced on photographic paper or films by chemical means, such as too energetic or contaminated developer.

CNES - Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (French Space Agency)

Completeness - component of data quality describing the completeness of coverage within a data set(s).

Contour - an imaginary line drawn on a map joining all the points on the earth that are the same height above sea level.

Control - a system of points which are used as fixed references for positioning other surveyed features.

Control, ground - control obtained by ground surveys as distinguished from control obtained by photogrammetric methods; may be for horizontal or vertical control, or both. Ground (in-situ) observations to aid in the interpretation of remote sensing data.

Control point - any station in a horizontal and/or vertical control system that is identified on a photograph and used for correlating the data shown on that photograph.

Coordinates - linear or angular quantities which designate the position of a point in a given reference or grid system.

Coordinate, geographic - a system of spherical coordinates for describing the positions of points on the earth. The declinations and polar bearings in this system are the latitudes and longitudes respectively.

Coordinates, grid - a plane-rectangular coordinate system based on and mathematically adjusted to a map projection in order that geographic positions (latitudes and longitudes) may be readily transformed into plane coordinates and the computations relating to them made by the ordinary methods of plane surveying.

COPYFILE - shareware software owned and copyright by Informatix Inc, USA. Used by GEODATA RASTER-250K to reformat the raster data.

CP - Centering Point or Control Point

CSA - Canadian Space Agency

DCX - a raster image format, and is a variation of PCX file. DCX is used by many MS-DOS fax boards.

DEM Digital Elevation Model - a geographic grid of an area where the contents of each grid cell represents the height of the terrain in that cell. Consists of X, Y and Z coordinates.

Descending node - point on the orbit of a satellite when a satellite crosses the Earth's equatorial plane while moving from north to south. Using two GPS satellite receivers with one at a known position it is possible to increase the accuracy from a roving receiver by applying corrections derived from the fixed receiver.

DIGEST - Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard: a system for compiling spatial data directly in digital form.

Distortion - any shift in the position of an image on a photograph which alters the perspective characteristics of the photograph. Compression or expansion of the scale of the imagery in the azimuth direction. Change in scale from one part of the imagery to another.

DMA Defense Mapping Agency - United States of America

Downlink - a communication link between a satellite and a ground station.

DORIS - Doplar Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite

DPI - dots per inch.

Dynamic range - the ratio of maximum measurable signal to minimum detectable signal.

EDM Electronic Distance Measurement - measurement of distance by means of electro-magnetic transmissions, including radio, visible high, laser and infrared light.

Elevation - the angle above the horizon, measured from the horizontal plane.

EMR Electromagnetic Radiation - energy propagated through space or through material media in the form of an advancing interaction between electric and magnetic fields.

Engineering surveying - surveying associated with the setting out and monitoring of engineering or construction works.

Enhancement, image - the process of altering the appearance of an image to extract additional information. It may be accomplished by digital or photographic (optical) methods.

ERC - Earth Rotation Correction

ERS European Remote Sensing Satellite - ERS-1was launched 17 July 1991 and operates in a near circular sun synchronous orbit with a period of 100 minutes. The satellite altitude is 785km. The repeat coverage cycle varies, depending on mission requirements, and includes 3, 35 and 168 day cycles. ERS-2 was launched 20 April 1995 and has the same orbit parameters as ERS-1.

ESA - European Space Agency

FIG -Federation Internationale des Geometres or International Federation of Surveyors

Frequency - the number of oscillations per unit time or number of wavelengths that pass a point per time.

Geocentric DatumError! Reference source not found. - a datum based on the Earth's centre of mass (or geocentre); as distinct from a regional datum, such as the AGD, whose origin does not coincide with the Earth's centre of mass.

GEODATA products - comprise map information converted into digital format. Used in conjunction with geographic information systems GEODATA products assist applications such as resource management, environmental assessment, mineral prospecting, communications and transportation planning.

Geodesy - the study of the size and shape of the Earth's surface, the measurement of the position and motion of points on the surface and the configuration and area of large portions of its surface.

Geodetic controlError! Reference source not found. - a network of sites for which precise positions and/or heights are known and for which the shape and size of the Earth are taken into account.

Geodetic surveying - surveying which takes into account the shape and size of the earth. The result of a geodetic survey is a continuous series of accurately marked points on the ground, to which topographic, land and engineering surveys can be related to provide additional coordinated points for mapping and other purposes.

Geographical Grid - grid derived from geographical coordinates (commonly referred to as longitude and latitude).

Geometric correction
- the removal of sensor, platform, or scene induced geometric errors such that the data conforms to a desired projection. This involves the creation of a new digital image by resampling the input digital image.

GEOREFERENCED - digital spatial data (and non-digital map features) for which the coordinates or location can be determined.

GICS Geocoded Image Correction System - an image processing system employed at ACRES.

GIF Graphics Interchange Format - the image file format originally developed by CompuServe as a machine-independent image file format. GIF files are a popular way of storing 8 bit, scanned or digitised images, and the compression ratios achieved are commonly better than other 8 bit formats. This format is commonly used in Internet applications.

GIS Geographic Information System - a computer-based system used to capture, create, maintain, display and analyze spatially-related information.

GPS Global Positioning SystemError! Reference source not found. - is a satellite based navigation system developed by the United States Department of Defense and widely used for civilian navigation and positioning.

Grey scale - a monochrome strip of tones ranging from white to black with intermediate shades of gray. The scale is placed in a setup for a color photograph and serves as a means of balancing the separation negatives and color dye images.

Ground Station - a facility capable of receiving signals from earth observation satellites such as LANDSAT, SPOT, ERS, JERS and MOS.

Ground Resolution Cell - the area on the ground that is covered by the IFOV of a detector.

GRS Grille de Reference SPOT
- the system of using a path and row combination to identify nominal scene positioning for data from the SPOT satellites.
HDDT High Density Digital Tape - one inch magnetic tape containing data from a remote sensing satellite and recorded in a compressed format.

HRV Haute Resolution dans le Visible
- the name given to the multispectral radiometer designed for SPOT spacecraft and offering high resolution in the visible and near-infrared. The first three SPOT spacecraft (SPOT-1,-2,-3) carry two identical HRVs designed for operation in a number of viewing configurations and in different spectral modes.

HRVIR - Haute Resolution Visible Infra Rouge (proposed SPOT4).

Hydrographic surveying - the measurement and description of the physical features offshore and adjoining coastal areas with special reference to their use for the purpose of navigation.

Hypsometric tints - colors on a map depicting variations in the height of the earth's surface above sea level.

IFOV Instantaneous Field Of View - is the pixel dimensions of the bulk (Level 1) product not the pixel dimensions of the resampled product.

IGAE - Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment

IMAGINE - software owned and copyright to ERDAS, USA. Used to update RASTER-250K map images.

IR - Infra-Red

LANDSAT - earth resources satellites operated by NOAA, United States. LANDSAT 5 was launched 1 March 1994 and operates in a near polar sun synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705km. Repeat cycle is 16 days.

Legal cadastre - a cadastre compiled so that the jurisdiction may have a record of ownership of all land parcels.

Lineage - component of data quality describing the history or origin of features within the described data set.

LIS -Land Information System - synonymous with GIS although more often associated with cadastral based systems.

Look angle (radar) - the direction of the look, or direction, in which the antenna is pointing when transmitting and receiving from a particular cell.

LOS -Loss of Signal

LUT -Look-Up Table

LZW compression - a compression routine for raster data, patented and owned by Unisys Corporation of the United States of America.

Map - a representation of the earth's surface. A cadastral map is one showing the land subdivided into units of ownership; a topographic map is one showing the physical and superficial features as they appear on the ground; a thematic map displays a particular theme, such as vegetation or population density.
Mbps Megabits per second - the rate of transfer of binary information in millions of bits per second and commonly referred to in data transmission rates from satellites to ground stations.

Metadata - summary information describing the content of a dataset.

Mining surveying - associated with the construction, monitoring and mapping of mines and associated works.

MLA - Multispectral Linear Array

MMOFE Mission Management Organization Front End - NASDA's mission management computer.

MOS -Marine Observation Satellite (Japan)

Mosaicing - the assembling of photographs or other images whose edges are cut and matched to form a continuous photographic representation of a portion of the earth's surface.

MOSS
-Modelling of Surface Systems

MQS Microimage Quicklook System - image cataloguing system employed at ACRES.

MSS Multi-spectral Scanning System - a scanner on board LANDSAT 4 and 5 that records four bands of digital data.

Multipurpose cadastre - a cadastre containing a variety of parcel-based information considered necessary for good land administration.

Multispectral - generally used for acquisition of remote sensing data in two or more spectral bands.

MW
- Microwave

Nadir - that point on the ground vertically beneath the perspective centre of the camera lens.

NASA
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NIR
-Near Infra-Red

NOAA
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Number of looks (radar)
- this term refers to the successive observations of the same area as the antenna moves along its designated path. Many observations may be required in order to characterize the backscatter properties of a surface.

Orbit - path of a satellite around the earth.

Orbital elements - a set of parameters defining the orbit of a satellite. Also called orbital parameters.

Orbital period - the time taken by a satellite to make one revolution around the earth. Also referred to as the anomalous or nodal period.

Orthographic projection
- the projection by parallel rays onto a plane at right angles to the rays.

Orthophotomaps - aerial maps, true to scale.

Path - the number of the north/south track of the satellite in its specific satellite grid. LANDSAT uses the WRS and SPOT the GRS. For LANDSAT, in the visibility circle for the Alice Springs receiving station, the path range is 84 to 117, from east to west.

PC - IBM or compatible personal computer.

PCX - raster data format originally developed by Zsoft and extensively used in IBM PC computer applications.

Photogrammetry
- the science and art of obtaining measurements from photographs.

PHOTOSHOP - software owned and copyright to ADOBE, USA. Used to edit and enhance GEODATA RASTER-250K map images.

Pixel
- a contraction of the words 'picture element'. A data element having both spatial and spectral aspects. The spatial variable defines the size of the resolution cell (i.e. the area on the ground represented by the data values), and the spectral variable defines the intensity of the spectral response for that cell in a particular channel.

PLA Panchromatic Linear Array - the single band sensor onboard the SPOT 1, 2, and 3 spacecraft.

Polarisation
- the direction of vibration of the electrical field vector of electromagnetic radiation.

Positional Accuracy - component of data quality describing the planimetric accuracy of features

PSMA
- Public Sector Mapping Agencies

Quantization
- the process of converting from continuous values of information to a finite number of discrete values.

RADARSAT
- the earth observation satellite launched 4 November 1995 and operated by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). RADARSAT is equipped with a C-band SAR which can be operated in a variety of modes with swath widths ranging from 35 kilometers to 500 kilometers and with resolutions from 10 meters to 100 meters respectively.

Radiance
- a measure of the energy radiated by an object together with the frequency distribution of that radiation.

Raster Data
- a picture or image composed of rows and columns of data cells (pixels). Satellite data and GEODATA RASTER-250K are examples of raster data.

Raster Image - a cellular data structure composed of rows and columns. Each cell has a value which represents an attribute value for the feature represented by that group of cells.

Relief Displacement
- a shift in position of the optical image of an object caused by the height of the object above or depth below a datum plane.

Remote sensing - the acquisition of information about an object without physical contact. Usually associated with the acquisition of information about the Earth's surface by electronic and/or optical instruments from satellites, airborne platforms or ground observation.

Repeat Cycle - cycle time for a satellite to pass over a given point on the earth.

Row
- the number of the east/west grid line in the specific satellite grid. LANDSAT uses the WRS and SPOT the GRS. For LANDSAT, in the visibility circle for the Alice Springs receiving station, the row range is 61 to 91, from north to south.

SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar
- type of instrument on recently launched satellites which can "see" through clouds and make it possible to acquire satellite imagery day and night.

SATOPS Satellite Operations Section (ACRES)
- the primary responsibilities include the management of all client future acquisition requests and also long and short term acquisition planning for the ACRES archive program.

Scale
- the indication given on a map, either as a linear scale or representative fraction, of the ratio between a given distance on the map and the corresponding distance on the earth's surface.

SDTS
- Spatial Data Transfer Standard

Sensor
- any device which gathers EMR or other energy and presents it in a form suitable for obtaining information about the environment.

Slant Range
- for radar images this term represents the distance measured along a line between the antenna and the target.

SLR Satellite Laser Ranging
- the measurement of the distance to a satellite fitted with retro-reflectors, by measuring the time taken for a laser beam to travel to the satellite and back. These measurements are used to determine satellite orbits and to monitor the movement of the earth.

Spectral band
- an interval in the electromagnetic spectrum defined by two wavelengths, frequencies, or wave numbers.

SPOT Satellite Pour L'Observation de la Terre
- the SPOT series of earth observation satellites are operated by CNES, France. SPOT 1 was launched 22 February 1986, SPOT 2 was launched 21 January 1990 and is currently operational and SPOT 3 was launched 26 September 1993 and is currently fully operational. SPOT satellites are operated in a sun synchronous near polar orbit. Satellite altitude is 830km and the repeat cycle is 26 days. SPOT 4 is proposed for launch in December 1997.

Stereoscopic pair
- two images of the same area taken from different camera stations so as to afford stereoscopic vision; frequently called stereopair.

Stereoscopic plotting instrument
- an instrument for plotting a map or obtaining spatial solutions by observation of stereoscopic models formed by stereopairs of images.

Sun synchronous
- earth satellite orbit in which the orbital plane is near polar and the satellite passes over points on the earth at the same latitude at the same local sun time.

Surveying
- measurement of dimensions (contour, position, boundaries, area, height etc.) of any part of the earth's surface (land or water) or any cultural feature. Depending on the type of survey undertaken and the degree of accuracy required, "surveys" may involve the application of the theory, principles and techniques of geodesy, photogrammetry and cartography.

SWIR - Short Wave Infra-Red

Telemetry
- radio signals transmitted between satellites and ground stations.

TIFF Tagged Information File Format
- raster image format created by Aldus and Microsoft Corporations and designed to be a universal format. It is used extensively in desktop publishing packages. TIFF can be compressed using a wide range of compression routines. The most common of these is LZW.

Title
- the evidence of a person's right to land.

TM Thematic Mapper
- a scanner on-board the LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites that records seven bands of digital data.

Topographic surveying
- involves establishing the contour level and interval of the earth's surface above and below sea level based on a particular control survey system. These surveys may be done by aerial, photogrammetric and ground survey and involves recording of natural features such as hills, streams, valleys and cultural features, such as roads, bridges, railways, etc. These surveys are used to produce topographic maps.

Topography
- description or representation on a map of the physical and cultural surface features.
UV -Ultra-Violet

Vector data
- spatial data in which the location of features is defined by points and straight lines (vectors). A road network would be described by vector data.

VLBI
- Very Long Baseline Interferometry

Wavelength
- the least distance between particles moving in the same phase of oscillation in a wave disturbance. For electromagnetic waves wavelength is influenced by the environment in which the waves are propagating (e.g. air versus a vacuum).
WGS84 World Geodetic System 1984 Geocentric datum used by GPS systems.

WRS World Reference System
- the system of using a path and row combination to identify nominal scene positioning for data from the MSS and TM sensors on the LANDSAT satellite.

GPS/GIS/LIS Glossary of Terms

From ASHTECH http://www.ashtech.com/pages/gps/glossary.html

Aerotriangulation (phototriangulation)
- a complex process vital to aerial photogrammetry that involves extending vertical and/or horizontal control so that the measurements of angles and/or distances on overlapping photographs are related to a spatial solution using the perspective principles of the photographs. Aerotriangulation consists of mathematically extending the vectors/angles of a triangular pattern of known reference points on or near the designated photo-block terrain upward through a rectangle representing the area of the photo-block (as seen by the camera's optical center) in such a way that the three-point terrain triangle and the camera's eye three-point triangle (within the photographic frame) are analogous.

Almanac
- a set of parameters used by a GPS receiver to predict the approximate locations of a GPS satellite and the expected satellite clock offset. Each GPS satellite contains and transmits the almanac data for all GPS satellites. (See ephemerisError! Reference source not found.).

Ambiguity
- the initial bias in a carrier-phase observation of an arbitrary number of cycles; the uncertainty of the number of cycles a receiver is attempting to count. If wavelength is known, the distance to a satellite can be computed once the number of cycles is established via carrier-phase processing.

Antenna
- a variety of GPS antennas ranging from simpler microstrip devices to complex choke ring antennas that mitigate the effects of multipath scattering.

Anti-Spoofing (AS)
- the process of encrypting the P-Code modulation sequence so that the code cannot be replicated by hostile forces. When encrypted, the P-Code is referred to as the Y-Code (see Y-Code & Spoofing). Error! Reference source not found.

Atomic clock
- a clock whose frequency is maintained using electromagnetic waves that are emitted or absorbed in the transition of atomic particles between energy states. The frequency of an atomic transition is very precise, resulting in very stable clocks. A cesium clock has an error of about one second in one million years. For redundancy purposes, GPS satellites carry multiple atomic clocks. GPS satellites have used rubidium clocks as well as cesium clocks. The GPS Master Control Station uses cesium clocks and a hydrogen maser clock.

Baseline
- the measured distance between two receivers or two antennas.

Bipolar biphase shift key (BPSK)
- the modulation technique used on GPS satellites. In this method, a binary bit transition results in a 180-degree shift of the carrier.

Cadastral survey
- a survey that defines boundaries, property lines, etc., and pertains to cadastre, an official register of ownership, the extent and value of real property. Cadastral surveys usually determine taxation.

Carrier frequency
- the basic frequency of an unmodulated radio signal. GPS satellite navigation signals are broadcast on two L-band frequencies, L1 and L2. L1 is at 1575.42 Mhz, and L2 is at 1227.6 Mhz.

Carrier phase
- the fraction of a cycle, often expressed in degrees, where 360 degrees equals a complete cycle. Carrier phase can also mean the number of complete cycles plus a fractional cycle. In a survey-grade GPS receiver, the receiver can lock on to a satellite and, keeping track of the number of whole cycles of the carrier, creates a cumulative phase of the signal which is often referred to as integrated Doppler.

C/A (clear acquisition) Code
- consists of a sequence of 1023 bits (0 or 1) that repeats every millisecond. Each satellite broadcasts a unique 1023-bit sequence that allows a receiver to distinguish between various satellites. The C/A-Code modulates only the L1 carrier frequency on GPS satellites. The C/A-Code allows a receiver to quickly lock on to a satellite.

Carrier phase
- the cummulative phase of either the L1 or L2 carrier of a GPS signal, measured by a receiver while locked-on to the signal (also known as integrated Doppler).

Channel
- refers to the hardware in a receiver that allows the receiver to detect, lock-on and continuously track the signal from a single satellite. The more receiver channels available, the greater number of satellite signals a receiver can simultaneously lock-on and track.

Circular Error Probable (CEP)
- the radius of a circle, centered at the true location, within which 50% of position solutions fall. CEP is used for horizontal accuracy (see SEP).

Constellation
- refers to the collection of orbiting GPS satellites. The GPS constellation consists of 24 satellites in 12-hour circular orbits at an altitude of 20,200 kilometers. In the nominal constellation, four satellites are spaced in each of six orbital planes. The constellation was selected to provoke a very high probability of satellite coverage even in the event of sattellite outages.

Conventional Terrestrial System (CTS)
- a standardized reference system, originating at the planet's center of mass, that is designed to allow uniformity in geodetic measurements and computations.

Cycle slip
- a loss of count of carrier cycles as they are being measured by a GPS receiver. Loss of signal, ionospheric interference and other forms of interference cause cycle slips to occur (see carrier phase).

Differential GPS (DGPS)
- a technique whereby data from a receiver at a known location is used to correct the data from a receiver at an unknown location. Differential corrections can be applied in either real-time (see RTCM SC-104 formatError! Reference source not found.) or by post-processing. Since most of the errors in GPS are common to users in a wide area, the DGPS-corrected solution is significantly more accurate than a normal SPS solution.

Dilution of Precision (DOP)
- a measure of the receiver-satellite(s) geometry. DOP relates the statistical accuracy of the GPS measurements to the statistical accuracy of the solution. Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) is composed of Time Dilution of Precision (TDOP) & Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP), which are composed of Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP) & Vertical Dilution of Precision (VDOP).

Doppler shift
- a shift similar to that experienced by audio phenomena, except occurring in the electromagnetic spectrum, where an apparent change in signal frequency occurs as the transmitter and receiver move toward or away from one another.

Double difference
- (see single differenceError! Reference source not found.) the arithmetic differencing of carrier phases measured simultaneously by a pair of receivers tracking the same pair of satellites. Single differences are obtained by each receiver from each satellite; these differences are then differenced in turn, which essentially deletes all satellite and receiver clock errors.

Earth Centered, Earth Fixed (ECEF)
- a Cartesian coordinate system centered at the earth's center of mass. The Z-axis is aligned with the earth's mean spin axis. The X-axis is aligned with the zero meridian. The Y-axis is 90 degrees west of the X-axis, forming a right-handed coordinate system.

Elevation mask
- an adjustable feature of GPS receivers that specifies that a satellite must be at least a specified number of degrees above the horizon before the signals from the satellite are to be used. Satellites at low elevation angles (five degrees or less) have lower signal strengths and are more prone to loss of lock thus causing noisy solutions.

Ellipsoid of revolution (often referred to simply as ellipsoid)
- a mathematical representation of the earth that is an ellipse that is rotated about its minor axis. An ellipsoid is an equipotential surface of a rotating, homogeneous body. Various ellispoid models have been determined to approximate the geoid in local areas and in a global sense. GPS uses the WGS84 earth model which is based on the GRS80 ellipsoid.

Ephemeris (plural: ephemerides)
- a set of parameters used by a GPS receiver to predict the location of a GPS satellite and its clock behavior. Each GPS satellite contains and transmits ephemeris data its own orbit and clock. Ephemeris data is more accurate than the almanac data but is applicable over a short time frame (four to six hours). Ephemeris data is transmitted by the satellite, every 30 seconds. (See almanacError! Reference source not found.).

Firmware
- the electronic heart of a receiver, where coded instructions relating to receiver function, and (sometimes) data processing algorithms, are embedded as integral portions of the internal circuitry.

Frequency
- the number of times that a periodic event occurs per unit of time. For GPS, frequency usually refers to the radio frequency, in Hz, of either of two basic carriers transmitted by each satellite (see L1 & L2Error! Reference source not found.).

Geodetic coordinates
- a coordinate system whose elements are latitude, longitude and geodetic height. The latitude is an angle based on the perpendicular to the ellipsoid. Longitude is the angle measured in the XY plane (see ECEFError! Reference source not found.).

Geodetic datum (horizontal datum)
- a specifically oriented ellipsoid typically defined by eight parameters which establish its dimensions, define its center with respect to Earth's center of mass and specify its orientation in relation to the Earth's average spin axis and Greenwich reference meridian.

Geodetic height (ellipsoidal height)
- the height of a point above an ellipsoidal surface. The difference between a point's geodetic height and its orthometric height equals the geoidal height.

Geoid
- the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field which best fits mean sea level. Geoids currently in use are GEOID84 and GEOID90.

Geoidal height (geoidal separation; undulation)
- the height of a point on the geoid above the ellipsoid measured along a perpendicular to the ellipsoid.

Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) - the Russian version of GPS.

GPS week - GPS time started at Saturday/Sunday midnight, January 6, 1980. The GPS week is the number of whole weeks since GPS time zero.

Gravity
- a force that is the vector sum of gravitational attraction of the various masses within the planet (gravitation) plus the centrifugal force caused by the rotation of the Earth. Unit of measurement: the gal = 1 cm per m/sec2.

Hydrographic and bathymetric surveying
- surveying or mapping of harbors, inlets or deep water locations. Hydrography is the study of the physical characteristics of oceans, lakes and rivers as well as the elements affecting safe navigation. Bathymetry is the measurement and study of water depths.

Ionosphere
- refers to the layers of ionized air in the atmosphere extending from 70 kilometers to 700 kilometers and higher. Depending on frequency, the ionosphere can either block radio signals completely or change the propagation speed. GPS signals penetrate the ionosphere but are delayed. The ionospheric delays can be either predicted using models, though with relatively poor accuracy, or measured using two frequency receivers.

Julian date
- the number of days that have elapsed since 1 January 4713 B.C. in the Julian calendar. GPS time zero is defined to be midnight UTC, Saturday/Sunday, 6 January 1980 at Greenwich. The Julian date for GPS time zero is 2,444,244.5.

Kinematic surveying
- a method which initially solves wavelength ambiguities and retains the resulting measurements by maintaining a lock on a specific number of satellites throughout the entire surveying period.

L1 & L2
- designations of the two basic carrier frequencies transmitted by GPS satellites that contain the navigation signals. L1 is 1,575.42 Mhz and L2 is 1,227.60 Mhz.

L-band
- a nominal portion of the microwave electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 1 to 2 Ghz.

Multipath
- the reception of a signal both along a direct path and along one or more reflected paths. The resulting signal results in an incorrect paseudorange measurement. The classical example of multipath is the "ghosting" that appears on television when an airplane passes overhead.

Multiplexing
- a technique used in some GPS receivers to sequence the signals of two or more satellites through a single hardware channel. Multiplexing allows a receiver to track more satellites than the number of hardware channels at the cost of lower effective signal strength.
Navigation messages - data modulated onto the satellite's signals. The navigation data is transmitted at 50 bits per second and contains ephemeris and clock data for that particular satellite, other data required by a receiver to compute position velocity and time and almanac data for all NAVSTAR satellites. The data is transmitted in 1500 bit frames, each requiring 30 seconds to transmit. A complete set of data to include all almanacs, timing information, ionospheric information and other data requires 12-1/2 minutes to transmit.
NAVigation Satellite for Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR) - Another term for GPS or sometimes used in conjunction with GPS as in "NAVSTAR GPS.".

On-the-Fly (OTF)
- a term used to describe the technique of resolving differential carrier-phase integer ambiguities without requiring a GPS receiver to remain stationary.

Orbit
- the path a satellite takes in space.

Orthometric height (orthometric elevation)
- the height of a point above the geoid.

P-Code
- "precise" or "protected" code which is bi-phase shift modulated on both the L1 and L2 carrier frequencies. P-code has a 10.23MHz bit rate and, as implemented in GPS, has a period of one week. Each satellite has a unique P-code that is used to distinguish the satellite from all other GPS satellites.

Photogrammetry
- an aerial remote sensing technique whose latest innovations employ a high-resolution aerial camera with forward motion compensation and uses GPS technology for pilot guidance over the designated photo block(s). Photogrammetry forms the baseline of many Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Land Information System (LIS) studies and endeavors.

Post-processing
- - the reduction and processing of GPS data after the data was actually collected in the field. Post-processing is usually accomplished on a computer in an office environment where appropriate software is employed to achieve optimum position solutions.

Precise Positioning System (PPS)
- the more accurate GPS capability that is restricted to authorized, typically military, users.

Pseudo-kinematic surveying
- a variation of the kinematic method where roughly five-minute site occupations are repeated at a minimum of once each hour.

Pseudorandom noise (PRN)
- the P(Y) and C/A codes are pseudo-random noise sequences which modulate the navigation signals. The modulation appears to be random noise but is, in fact, predictable hence the term "pseudo"random. Use of this technique allows the use of a single frequency by all GPS satellites and also permits the satellites to broadcast a low power signal.

Pseudorange
- the measured distance between the GPS receiver antenna and the GPS satellite. The pseudorange is approximately the geometric range biased by the offset of the receiver clock from the satellite clock. The receiver actually measures a time difference which is related to distance (range) by the speed of propagation.

Quartz oscillator
- the timing device within a receiver that synchronizes the receiver's operation and maintains time for the receiver.

Ratio
- a measure of the precision of observations that takes into account the resolution of ambiguities and arrives at an RMS value during the processing computations.

Real-time
- refers to immediate, "on the spot," GPS data collection, processing and position determination (usually) within a receiver's firmware, rather than post-processing "after the fact" via a computer in an office environment.

Real-time kinematic (RTK)
- a DGPS process where carrier-phase corrections are transmitted in real-time from a reference receiver at a known location to one or more remote "rover" receiver(s).

Reference Network
- a series of monuments or reference points with accurately measured mutual vectors/distances that is used as a reference basis for cadastral and other types of survey.

Reference Station
- a point (site) where crustal stability, or tidal current constants, have been determined through accurate observations, and which is then used as a standard for the comparison of simultaneous observations at one or more subordinate stations. Certain of these are known as Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORS), and transmit reference data on a 24-hour basis.

RINEX
- the Receiver-INdependent EXchange format for GPS data, which includes provisions for pseudorange, carrier-phase, and Doppler observations.

Root mean squared (RMS) - a statistical measure of the scatter of computed positions about a "best fit" position solution. RMS can be applied to any random variable.

RTCM SC-104 format
- a standard format used in the transmission of differential corrections.

Satellite Image Mapping (SIM)
- a product of remote sensing where discrete blocks of orbital photography are "mosaicked" into a comprehensive whole, then "geocoded" or computer-linked to specific Mercator, Lambert Conformal, or other types of projections that include a scale factor and reference geoid, with each pixel related to a specific latitude and longitude.

Selective Availability (SA)
- the process whereby DoD "dithers" the satellite clock and/or broadcasts erroneous orbital ephemeris data to create a pseudorange error (see Standard Positioning SystemError! Reference source not found.).

Spherical Error Probable (SEP)
- a navigational measure of accuracy equaling the radius of a sphere, centered on the true location, inside which 50% of the computed solutions lie. (See CEP.)

Sidereal Time
- is defined by the hour angle of the vernal equinox. Taking the mean equinox as the reference yields true or apparent Sidereal Time. Neither Solar nor Sidereal Time are constant, since angular velocity vary due to fluctuations caused by the Earth's polar moment of inertia as exerted through tidal deformation and other mass transports.

Single difference
- the arithmetic "differencing" of carrier phases simultaneously measured by a pair of receivers tracking the same satellite (between-receivers and satellite), or by a single receiver tracking two satellites (between-satellite and receivers); the former essentially deletes all satellite clock errors, while the latter essentially deletes all receiver errors.

Software
- usually refers to a set of advanced modules, such as Ashtech's PRISM II Package, that allows the user to plan efficient surveys, organize and acquire GPS data, verify and download GPS data into a computer, process and analyze the measurements, perform a network adjustment, and report/archive the final results.

Spoofing
- the process of replicating the GPS code in such a way that the user computes incorrect position solutions.
Standard Positioning System - the less accurate GPS capability which is available to all. (See Anti-Spoofing and Selective AvailabilityError! Reference source not found.Error! Reference source not found.).

Static observations
- a GPS survey technique that requires roughly one hour of observation, with two or more receivers observing simultaneously, and results in high accuracies and vector measurements.

Triple difference
- the arithmetic difference of sequential, doubly-differenced carrier-phase observations that are free of integer ambiguities, and therefore useful for determining initial, approximate coordinates of a site in relative GPS positioning, and for detecting cycle slips in carrier-phase data. (See single difference & double differenceError! Reference source not found.)

Universal Time Coordinated (UTC)
- time as maintained by the U.S. Naval Observatory. Because of variations in the Earth's rotation, UTC is sometimes adjusted by an integer second. The accumulation of these adjustments compared to GPS time, which runs continuously, has resulted in an 11 second offset between GPS time and UTC at the start of 1996. After accounting for leap seconds and using adjustments contained in the navigation message, GPS time can be related to UTC within 20 nanoseconds or better.

World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84)
- a set of U.S. Defense Mapping Agency parameters for determining global geometric and physical geodetic relationships. Parameters include a geocentric reference ellipsoid; a coordinate system; and a gravity field model. GPS satellite orbital information in the navigation message is referenced to WGS 84.

Y-Code
- the designation for the end result of P-Code during Anti-Spoofing (AS) activation by DoD.

Y-Code tracking, civilian
- several methods of obtaining valid data from encrypted Y-code are available:
1. Signal squaring (now obsolete) multiplies the signal by itself, thus deleting the carrier's code information and making distance measurement (ranging) impossible. Carrier phase measurements can still be accomplished, although doubling the carrier frequency halves the wavelength, further weakening an already weak signal. This method required collecting data over a much longer period.
2. Cross correlation, where no local (receiver) code is generated to match the L1 & L2 encrypted Y-codes. The ionosphere "slows" the L2 Y-code slightly in respect to the L1 Y-code, hence the difference between these distances can be measured and, once known, matched and multiplied to remove the codes and leave pure carrier frequencies for measurment. This does away with the half-wavelength problem, but again results in a weakened signal that necessitates longer observation periods.
3. Code correlation & squaring. Here, the L1 & L2 Y-Codes are compared against a locally generated P-Code; the difference (the encrypting Y-code signal) is thus revealed, measured and squared so that pure carrier frequencies can be measured. Squaring once again weakens the resulting half-wavelengths of both carrier frequencies, and once again requires longer observation periods.
4. Ashtech's "Z-Technique" (see Z-Tracking ™).

Z count
- a 29-bit binary number consisting of the fundamental GPS time unit. The (10) most significant bits carry the GPS week number, and the (19) least significant bits give the time of week (TOW) count in units of 1.5 seconds.



Last Document Correction:
July 15, 2015