Section 3






3-01.1  Prints

This item shall consist of photographic prints made from aerial photography negatives.

3-01.2  Types of Prints

The photographic prints shall be contacts, reductions, enlargements or such combinations thereof as stipulated by the NJDOT.  The prints shall be made of the base materials as directed hereinafter in Section 3-02.1.

3-02     MATERIALS

3-02.1  Base Materials

Base materials of prints shall be of resin-coated photographic paper or of dimensionally stable polyester-type plastic transparent film having a minimum thickness of one tenth of a millimeter (0.10 MM), or as otherwise specified by the NJDOT.

3-02.2  Photographic Emulsion

The photographic emulsion shall be fine grain and have suitable light sensitivity range and contrast for the making of prints on paper or film as specified by the NJDOT.  An outdated emulsion shall not be used.

3-02.3  Stability of Film and Paper

Dimensionally stable photographic paper or film shall be used unless approved otherwise by the NJDOT.  The difference in shrinkage, expansion, or any linear distortion as measured in any two directions after processing and drying, shall not exceed one part in 400 in photographic paper and one part in 1 000 in photographic film.  Such evident distortion shall be cause for rejection.


3-03.1  Scale and Size

  1. Contact Prints:  Each contact print shall show the scale and size of the negative from which it is printed.

  3. Enlargements:  Each enlargement shall be made to the scale or to the diameters of enlargement specified by the NJDOT.

  5. Reductions:  Each reduction shall be made to the scale or to the fraction of contact size specified by the NJDOT.

3-03.2  Processing Quality

Processing, including exposure, development, fixation, washing and drying of all photographic materials, shall result in finished photographic prints having a fine grain quality and a normal, uniform density  The photographic prints should have such tone and contrast that all of their fine details shall show clearly within their dark and light tone areas as well as in areas with intermediate tones.  Adequate grades of contact paper and proper laboratory procedures shall be used to achieve the best prints possible.  Excessive variance in tone or contrast between individual prints shall be cause for rejection.

Photographic prints shall be trimmed to neat and uniform dimensional lines along image edges and shall leave distinct the camera fiducial marks.  Prints showing fiducial marks of inadequate clarity and definition, or prints omitting fiducial marks, shall be rejected.

All prints shall be clear and free from chemicals, strains, blemishes, uneven spots, air bells, light streaks or fog, and other defects which would, in the opinion of the NJDOT, interfere with their intended purpose.  These prints shall be delivered to the NJDOT in a smooth, flat and usable condition.

3-03.3  Selection

Upon examination of the contact prints, the NJDOT shall designate the negatives from which additional prints, photographic transparencies, enlargements, reductions, or whatever combination(s) are specified, shall be prepared in accordance with the Contract requirements.

3-03.4  Labeling

On the back of each print, whether a contact, reduction or enlargement, and in the same corner and position as the photograph number appears on the image side, there shall be imprinted the following:  name and address of the Contractor, the legend PROPERTY, STATE OF NEW JERSEY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, and the approximate photographic scale, and the focal length in millimeters of the aerial camera.


This item shall consist of a sequential layout of aerial photographs designed to form a montage of the entire project area in a single overview.  This montage is then photographically reproduced in accordance with the scale and format specified by the NJDOT.

3-04.1  Photographic Paper and Film

To insure that photographic reproductions possess the attributes described in Section 3-03.2 for processing and quality, contact print paper with adequate contrast and quality shall be used in making prints to prepare the index, and the film and paper for copying and printing the index shall also have adequate contrast and quality and not be outdated.

3-04.2  Assembly

The photographic index shall be assembled by stapling together prints made from acceptable negatives without the negatives being masked.  The prints shall be trimmed to a neat and uniform edge along the photographic images without removing the fiducial marks.

The photographs shall be matched by overlapping corresponding images along the flight line.  The photographs for each adjacent flight strip shall overlap in the same direction.  Air base lengths shall be averaged in the course of matching successive pairs of photographic images along the flight line.  Parallel and adjoining flight line assemblies shall be adjusted in length as warranted by incremental movement along the flight line, one photograph with respect to another, until all adjacent flight strip images can be matched as completely as is practicable throughout the entire project area.  Upon completion, the assembly shall show clearly the film roll number and the identifying number of each photograph.

3-04.3  Labeling and Title Format

Appropriate notations identifying several important and prominent geographic and cultural features shall appear on the index.  The roll number of the film and the exposure number on every tenth (10th) photograph shall be accentuated by the use of a narrow, short-strip overlay of white paper on which the appropriate numbers have been printed.  The flight line number shall be noted and accentuated at the end of each strip of photographs.

All overlay lettering and numbering shall be neat and legible on both the index assembly and its photographic copies and shall not interfere with the principal map features or with the symbols, nomenclature and numbers which are not accentuated on the individual photographs.  A graphic scale bar shall be shown to denote the average scale of the index.

The legend STATE OF NEW JERSEY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, the project designation with its corresponding location and project limits, the photography scale, focal length, flight height and date, the Consultants identifying logo with name of firm flying, a north arrow, and the graphic scale bar shall all be arranged in title format according to the layout as prescribed by the NJDOT.  Each Photo Index Sheet shall have the approximate grid coordinates of the center of the sheet.  The complete title shall be photographically reproduced together with the index or portions thereof.  The lettering of the title, as it appears in final form on the index, shall measure not less than two and one half millimeters (2.5 MM) in height and shall be clearly and easily legible.

3-04.4  Photographic Copying and Printing

The assembly of photographs shall be copied onto photographic film so that prints can be made by the contact or projection method of printing at the Contractor's discretion.  If the projection method is selected, the scale of the copy negative shall be not less than one third (1/3) the scale specified for the photographic prints of the index.

Whenever the index cannot be fully copied on one negative, it shall be reproduced sequentially on as many negatives as necessary.  Each negative of a segment of the index shall photographically overlay the image on the preceding negative by at least fifty millimeters (50 MM)  as measured on the final scale of the index.

3-04.5  Size and Scale

All prints of the index shall be made on plastic film as prescribed in Section 3-02.1 and measuring five hundred ninety four millimeter by eight hundred forty-one millimeters (594 MM x 841 MM) between outside edges.

All such prints shall be made to a scale no smaller than one half (1/2) the contact scale of the aerial photography, unless otherwise specified by the NJDOT.


The Contractor shall furnish and deliver two (2) sets of contact prints of all exposures on resin-coated photographic paper to the NJDOT.  The Contractor shall similarly furnish and deliver any additional photographic reproductions so designated by the NJDOT.