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1787 Convention Minutes

On December 18, 1787, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution. The minutes of the ratification convention, imaged and transcribed in full below, document the quick work of the delegates. The absence of debate and the ready adoption of the proposed federal charter reflect the people of New Jersey's dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation. The delegates required only six days to establish rules, review the document, and complete their deliberations. On the seventh day, the delegates present unanimously approved the Constitution for the State of New Jersey. Of the thirty-nine elected to represent the thirteen New Jersey counties existing at that time, all but Samuel Dick of Salem County attended.


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Minutes of the Convention of the State of New Jersey
Holden at Trenton the 11th Day of December 1787.

Trenton
MDCCLXXXVII

 


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A List of the Members of the State Convention, elected pursuant to a Resolution of the Legislature of this State, passed at Trenton, October 29, 1787.

Bergen
John Fell
Peter Zabriskie
Cornelius Hennion
Essex
John Chetwood
Samuel Hay
David Crane
Middlesex
John Neilson
John Beatty
Benjamin Manning
Monmouth
Elisha Lawrence
Samuel Breese
William Crawford
Somerset
John Witherspoon
Jacob R. Hardenbergh
Frederick Frelinghuysen
Burlington
Thomas Reynolds
George Anderson
Joshua M. Wallace
Gloucester
Richard Howell
Andrew Hunter
Benjamin Whitall
Salem
Whitten Cripps
Edmund Wetherby
*Samuel Dick
Cape May
Jesse Hand
Jeremiah Eldredge
Matthew Whillden
Hunterdon
John Stevens
Hon. David Brearley
Joshua Corshon
Morris
William Windes
William Woodhull
John J. Faesch
Cumberland
David Potter
Jonathan Bowen
Eli Elmer
Sussex
Robert Ogden
Thomas Anderson
Robert Hoops

*This Member did not attend.

 


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Minutes of the Convention of the State of New Jersey.

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Trenton, Tuesday, December 11, 1787.

John Fell, Peter Zabriskie, Cornelius Hennion, John Neilson, John Beatty, Benjamin Manning, Samuel Breese, William Crawford, John Witherspoon, Jacob R. Hardenbergh, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Thomas Reynolds, George Anderson, Joshua M. Wallace, Richard Howell, Andrew Hunter, Benjamin Whitall, Jesse Hand, Jeremiah Eldredge, Matthew Whillden, John Stevens, David Brearley, Joshua Corshon, William Windes, William Woodhull, John J. Faesch, David Potter, Jonathan Bowen, Eli Elmer, Robert Ogden & Thomas Anderson, being

 


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Minutes of the Convention of the State of New Jersey.

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assembled in Pursuance of the Resolution of the Legislature of this State, unanimously passed at Trenton, October 29, 1787, they proceeded to appoint Mr. Beatty, Mr. Frelinghuysen & Mr. Hand, a Committee to receive and examine the Certificates of the Election of the Members of this Convention and to report on the same.

Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning ten o'clock.
Wednesday, December 12, 1787.

The Convention met pursuant to adjournment. Present as before, together with John Chetwood, Samuel Hay and David Crane, Delegates from the County of Essex, Whitten Cripps and Edmund Wetherby, two of the Delegates from the County of Salem, and Robert Hoops one of the Delegates from the County of Sussex.

Mr. Beatty, from the Committee, reported, that the following Persons, vizt John Fell, Peter Zabriskie, Cornelius Hennion, John Chetwood, Samuel Hay, David Crane, John Neilson, John Beatty, Benjamin Manning, Samuel Breese, William Crawford, John Witherspoon, Jacob R. Hardenbergh, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Thomas Reynolds, George Anderson, Joshua M. Wallace, Richard Howell, Andrew Hunter, Benjamin Whitall,

 


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Minutes of the Convention of the State of New Jersey.

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Whitten Cripps, Edmund Wetherby, Jesse Hand, Jeremiah Eldredge, Matthew Whillden, John Stevens, David Brearley, Joshua Corshon, William Windes, William Woodhull, John J. Faesch, David Potter, Jonathan Bowen, Eli Elmer, Robert Ogden, Thomas Anderson and Robert Hoops, have been duly elected, agreeably to the Resolution of the Legislature passed on the 29th of October last.

To which Report the Convention agreed.

Elisha Lawrence, one of the Delegates from the County of Monmouth, produced a Certificate of his being duly elected; which being read & approved, he took his seat in Convention.

The Convention proceeded to the Choice of a President, by Ballot, when the Honourable John Stevens, Esquire, was elected.

The Convention then proceeded to the Choice of a Secretary, also by Ballot, when Samuel Witham Stockton, Esquire, was elected.

William Rogers was appointed Door keeper.

Mr. Brearley, Mr. Hardenbergh and Mr. Neilson, were appointed a Committee to draw up & Report Rules for the Government of this Convention during their Sitting.

The Convention adjourned till Tomorrow morning ten o'clock.

 


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Minutes of the Convention of the State of New Jersey.

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Thursday, December 13, 1787.

The Convention met agreeably to adjournment Present as before.

On motion Resolved, that the Rev. Mr. Armstrong be requested to open the Business of the Convention every morning during their sitting with Prayers.

The Committee appointed yesterday, to form Rules for the Government of this Convention, made their Report; which, being considered and amended, was agreed to as follows:
Rules for conducting Business in the Convention of New Jersey

1. The Convention shall be opened every Morning with Prayers.

2. When the President assumes the Chair, the Members shall take their Seats.

3. The Minutes of the preceeding Day shall be read, and, if necessary, may be corrected.

4. Every Petition, Memorial, Letter, or other thing of the like kind, read in the Convention, shall be deemed as lying on the Table for further Consideration, unless any Special Order be moved thereon.

5. A motion made & Seconded, shall be repeated

 


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by the President; a motion shall be reduced to Writing if the President or any two Members require it; a motion may be withdrawn by the member making it before any Decision is had thereon.

6. A motion of Postponement or Amendment shall always be in order, & considered as the previous question.

7. If a Question under debate contains several Points, any Member may have it divided.

8. No Member speaking shall be interrupted but by a call to order by the President, or by a Member through the President.

9. No Member shall be referred to in Debate, by Name.

10. Every Member, when he chooses to speak, shall rise and address the President; when two Members chance to rise at the same time, the President shall name the Person who is to speak first.

11. Every Member shall conduct himself with Decency & Decorum. The President himself, or by request, may call to order any member who shall transgress the Rules; if the Disorder be continued or repeated, the president may refer to him by Name; the Convention may then examine & censure the member's conduct, he being allowed to extenuate or justify himself.

 


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12. Every member shall be in his place at the time the Convention stands adjourned to, or within half an Hour thereafter.

13. No member shall speak more than once in a Debate, until every member who chooses shall have spoken on the same.

14. The Yeas & Nays may be called and entered on the Minutes, when any two members require it.

15. A motion to adjourn may be made at any time, and shall always be in order, and the Question thereon shall be put without any Debate.

On motion
Resolved, that the Act of the Legislature of this State, passed at Trenton, November 1, 1787, giving authority for the People thereof, by their Delegates, to meet in Convention, to deliberate upon, and if approved of by them, to ratify the Constitution for the United States, proposed by the general Convention held at Philadelphia, be read; whereupon the same was read by the Secretary.

On motion
Resolved, That the Constitution for the United States of America, agreed to in Convention at Philadelphia, September 17, 1787, be also read; whereupon the same was read accordingly.

 


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On motion
Resolved, that the usual time of the Meeting of the Convention, be at ten OClock in the morning, and of Adjournment at three OClock in the Afternoon.

On motion
Resolved, that the Federal Constitution be now read by sections, and, upon each Section's being read, every member do make his observations on the same, if any he hath to make; that, after debating on such Section, the question be taken, whether any further debate be thereon had; and, if the said Question be determined in the Negative, that the Convention do then proceed in like manner to the next Section until the whole be gone through; upon which the general Question shall be taken, Whether this Convention, in the Name and in Behalf of the People of this State, do ratify & confirm the said Constitution?

The Convention adjourned til To-morrow morning ten OClock.
Friday, December 14, 1787.

The Convention met - Present as before.

On motion
Ordered, that the Doors of this Convention be open during the sitting.

 


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The Convention, in Pursuance of their Resolution of Yesterday, proceeded to consider & deliberate upon the proposed federal Constitution by sections. The Convention adjourned till To-morrow morning ten OClock.

Saturday, December 15, 1787.

The Convention met - Present as before.

The Convention proceeded further to consider & deliberate upon the before mentioned Constitution by sections.

The Convention adjourned to meet again on Monday morning next at Ten o'clock.

Monday, December 17, 1787.

The Convention met - Present as before.

A Petition from Messrs Quequelle and Wilson, Printers in Trenton, praying to be appointed by the Convention to print their Proceedings, was presented and read.

The Convention proceeded further to consider & deliberate upon the said Constitution by Sections; and having gone through the same, on motion,

Resolved, that the said Constitution be again read tomorrow morning.

 


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The Convention adjourned till to-morrow morning ten OClock.

Tuesday, December 18, 1787.

The Convention met - Present as before.

Agreeably to the Resolution of yesterday, the Federal Constitution was again read, and, after debating thereon, the general Question, viz, Whether this Convention, in the name and in Behalf of the People of this State, do ratify & confirm the said Constitution, was put; which was determined in the affirmative unanimously.

On motion
Resolved, That Mr. Brearley, Mr. Witherspoon, Mr. Neilson, Mr. Beatty and Mr. Hunter be a Committee for drawing up the Form of the Ratification of the proposed Constitution, on the Part of this State.

On motion,
Resolved, That Mr. Bowen & Mr. Whillden be a Committee for the Purpose of reporting a State of the Expences attending the Business of this Convention.

The Convention adjourned to six OClock this Evening.

 


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Minutes of the Convention of the State of New Jersey.

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The Convention met - Present as before.

Mr. Brearley, from the Committee appointed for drawing up the Form of the Ratification, reported, that they had, agreeably to the order of the Convention, drawn up a Form, which, being read & amended, was agreed to as follows:

In Convention of the State of New Jersey.

Whereas a Convention of the Delegates from the following States, viz, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, met at Philadelphia, for the Purpose of deliberating on and forming a Constitution for the United States of America, finished their session on the seventeenth Day of September last, and reported to Congress the Form which they had agreed upon, in the words following, viz.

We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, ensure domestick Tranquility, provide for the common Defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain & establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

 


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Article I.

Section 1.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five years, and been seven years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent

 


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Term of ten Years, in such manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one, for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one Representative; and until such Enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker & other Officers; and shall have the sole power of Impeachment.

Section 3.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into

 


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three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty years, and been nine years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro-tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

 


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The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office and Disqualification to hold & enjoy any office of Honour, Trust or Profit under the United States; but the Party convicted shall, nevertheless be liable & subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4.
The Times, Places & manner of holding Elections for Senators & Representatives; shall be prescribed in each state by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of choosing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different day.

Section 5.
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of

 


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its own members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from Day to Day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent Members, in such manner, & under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas & Nays of the Members of either House on any Question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three Days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6.
The Senators & Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall, in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be priviledged

 


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from Arrest during their attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

Section 7.
All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before, it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated,

 


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who shall enter the objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and, if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas & Nays and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a Law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution or Vote, to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and, before the same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by

 


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two Thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules & Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8.
The Congress shall have Power To lay & collect Taxes, Duties, Imports and Excises, to pay the Debts & provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imports and Excises, shall be uniform throughout the United States.

To borrow money on the Credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the Subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights & Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the securities & current coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science & useful Arts, by securing, for limited times, to

 


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Authors and Inventors, the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies & Felonies committed on the high Seas, and offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War grant Letters of Marque & Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land & Water;

To raise & support Armies - but no Appropriations of money, to that use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make rules for the Government & Regulation of the Land & Naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections & repel Invasions;

To provide for Organizing, Arming & Disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the Discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases

 


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whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenels, Dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;

and

To make all Laws which shall be necessary & proper for carrying in Execution the foregoing Powers; and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or officer thereof.

Section 9.
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred & eight, but a Tax or Duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten Dollars for each Person. The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

 


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No Bill of Attainder, or ex post facto Law, shall be passed. No Capitation, or other direct, Tax, shall be laid unless in proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: Nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement & account of the Receipts & Expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: - and no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept any Present, Emolument, office or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Sect. 10.
No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque & Reprisal; coin money; emit Bills of Credit; make any thing but

 


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Gold & Silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its Inspection Laws; and the net Produce of all Duties & Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress: No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War, in Time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of Delay.

Article II.

Section 1.
The Executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the Term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same Term, be elected as follows:

 


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Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be intitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign & certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all Certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal number

 


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of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a Quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by Ballot the Vice-President.

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural-born

 


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Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States at the Time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation or Inability to discharge the Powers & Duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President & Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

 


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Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect & defend the Constitution of the United States.

Section 2.
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the Principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices; and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves & Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have power by & with the advice & consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by with the advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, Judges of

 


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the Supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law. But the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such Inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary & expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them and in case of Disagreement between them, with respect to the time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take care that the Laws be

 


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faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

Section 4.
The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery or other high Crimes & Misdemeanors.

Article III.

Section 1.
The Judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such Inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and Inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Section Section 2.
The Judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of Admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to controversies to which the

 


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United States shall be a Party; to Controversies between two or more States, between a State and Citizens of another State, between Citizens of different States, between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers & Consuls, and those in which a State shall be a Party, the Supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have apellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3.
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies,

 


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giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses, to the same overt-act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Article IV.

Section 1.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records & Judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the manner in which such Acts, Records, and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2.
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Priviledges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall, on Demand of the

 


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executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful Rules & Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any Claims of the United States or of any particular state.

 


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Section 4.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasions; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestick Violence.

Article V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid, to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratifyed by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress: Provided, that no Amendment, which may be made prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first & fourth Clauses in the ninth Section of the first

 


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Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made under the Authority of the United States; shall be the Supreme Law of the Land: and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive & Judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

 


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Article VII.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same.

And Whereas Congress on the twenty eighth Day of September last, unanimously did resolve, "That the said Report, with the Resolutions & Letters accompanying the same, be transmitted to the several Legislatures, in order to be submitted to a Convention of Delegates, chosen in each State by the People thereof, in Conformity to the Resolves of the Convention, made and provided in that case.

And Whereas the Legislature of this State did, on the twenty ninth Day of October last, Resolve in the words following, viz.

Resolved unanimously, That it be recommended to such of the Inhabitants of this State as are intitled to vote for Representatives in general Assembly, to meet in their respective Counties on the fourth Tuesday in November next, at the several places fixed by Law for

 


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holding the annual Elections, to choose three suitable Persons to serve as Delegates from each County in a State Convention, for the Purposes herein before mentioned; and that the same be conducted agreeably to the mode, and conformably with the Rules and Regulations, prescribed for conducting such Elections.

Resolved unanimously, That the Person so elected, to serve in State Convention, do assemble and meet together on the second Tuesday in December next, at Trenton, in the County of Hunterdon, then & there to take in to consideration the aforeseaid Constitution; and if approved of by them, finally to ratify the same in Behalf and on the Part of this State; and make Report thereof to the United States in Congress assembled, in conformity with the Resolutions thereto annexed.

Resolved that the Sheriffs of the respective Counties of this State shall be, and they are hereby required to give as timely notice as may be, by Advertisements to the People of their Counties, of the Time, Place and Purpose of holding Elections as aforesaid.

 


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And Whereas the Legislature of the State did also, on the first Day of November last, make and pass the following act, viz.

An Act to authorize the People of this State to meet in Convention, deliberate upon, agree to, and ratify the Constitution of the United States, proposed by the late general Convention.

Be it enacted by the Council and general Assembly of this State, and it is hereby enacted by the Authority of the same, that it shall and may be lawful for the People thereof, by their Delegates, to meet in Convention, to deliberate upon, and, if approved of by them, to ratify the Constitution for the United States, proposed by the general Convention, held at Philadelphia, and every Act, matter and Clause therein contained, conformably to the Resolutions of the Legislature, passed the twenty ninth Day of October, seventeen hundred and eighty seven, any Law, Usage, or Custom to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding.

Now Be it known, That we, the Delegates of the State of New Jersey, chosen by the People thereof, for the Purposes thereof, having maturely deliberated on and considered the aforesaid proposed Constitution, do hereby, for and on Behalf of the People of the said State of

 


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New Jersey, agree to, ratify and confirm the same, and every Part thereof.

Done in Convention, by the Unanimous Consent of the Members present, this eighteenth Day of December, in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred & eighty seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In Witness we have hereunto subscribed our Names.

On Motion,
Resolved, That the Secretary be directed to cause two Copies of the Federal Constitution, together with the Form of the Ratification, &c, as agreed to, engrossed on Parchment, in a neat and correct manner, to be laid before the Convention To-morrow morning, for the Purpose of Signature; one for the Congress of the United States, and the other to be deposited among the Archives of this State.

The Convention adjourned till to-morrow Morning ten OClock.

Wednesday, December 19, 1787.

The Convention met - Present as before.

Mr. Whillden, from the Committee appointed for the purpose of reporting a State of the Expences &c made their Report; which was ordered to lie on the Table for Consideration.

The Secretary agreeably to the order of

 


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Yesterday, laid before the Convention two Copies of the Federal Constitution, &c together with the Form of the Ratificationas agreed to, engrossed on Parchment, for the Purpose of Signature; whereupon the Members of Convention proceeded to subscribe their Names thereto, and the Secretary to attest the same, in the following order:

John Stevens, President,
And Deputy from Hunterdon.
Bergen
John Fell
Peter Zabriskie
Cornelius Hennion
Essex
John Chetwood
Samuel Hay
David Crane
Middlesex
John Neilson
John Beatty
Benjamin Manning
Monmouth
Elisha Lawrence
Samuel Breese
William Crawford
Somerset
John Witherspoon
Jacob R. Hardenbergh
Frederick Frelinghuysen
Burlington
Thomas Reynolds
George Anderson
Joshua M. Wallace
Gloucester
Richard Howell
Andrew Hunter
Benjamin Whitall


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Salem
Whitten Cripps
Edmund Wetherby
 
Cape May
Jesse Hand
Jeremiah Eldredge
Matthew Whillden
Hunterdon
Hon. David Brearley
Joshua Corshon
 
Morris
William Windes
William Woodhull
John J. Faesch
Cumberland
David Potter
Jonathan Bowen
Eli Elmer
Sussex
Robert Ogden
Thomas Anderson
Robert Hoops

Attest, Samuel W. Stockton, Secretary.

Resolved, That the Convention go in Procession to the Courthouse this Day at one OClock, and that the Secretary be directed to read the Ratification of the Constitition in the Hearing of the People, which was done accordingly.

Resolved, That the Ratification of the Federal Constitution as agreed to, and signed by this Convention, be delivered by the President of this Convention to the President of Congress in Congress assembled.

The Convention adjourned to six oClock this Evening.

 


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The Convention met - Present as before.

Resolved,That the Secretary be directed to deliver the Duplicate of the Ratification of the Federal Constitution to the Governor of this State, for the Purpose of being lodged among the Archives of the State.

Resolved, That Mr. Brearley and Mr. G. Anderson be a Committee to revise and correct the minutes of the Convention.

Resolved, That the Secretary transcribe the minutes of this Convention, and deliver the same to the Speaker of the Assembly; that he also make a Copy to be delivered to the Printer of the State for Publication; and that seven hundred and fifty Copies of the said Minutes be printed, and delivered to the members of the Convention, to be by them distributed among those Persons who are intitled to receive the Votes and Acts of the Legislature of this State.

The Convention adjourned till To-morrow morning ten oClock.

Thursday, December 20, 1787.

The Convention met - Present as before.

On Motion
Resolved unanimously, That it is the

 


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Opinion of this Convention, that the State of New Jersey should offer a Cession to Congress of a District, not exceeding ten Miles square, for the Seat of the Government of the United States, over which they may exercise exclusive Legislation.

The Report of the Committee appointed for the Purpose of reporting a State of the Expences, &c being again read and amended, was agreed to as follows:

That the State of New Jersey is indebted to the several Persons herein named as follows, viz.

To Samuel Witham Stockton, Esquire, Secretary to the Convention, the sum of fourteen shillings per Day, for each day, ~ ~ he shall have attended, during the sitting of the Convention, and the sum of four pence per sheet, reckoning ninety words to the sheet, for entering the minutes of the Proceedings of the Convention fair in the Journals, and at a like Rate for a Copy thereof for the Printer: and that he produce a Certificate thererof, signed by the President of the Convention, to the Legislature at their next sitting, for Allowance.

To Ditto, for Parchment and other Stationary, the sum of three Pounds twelve shillings.

To Ditto, for Cash paid to Clerks for making two fair copies of the Federal Constitution, with the Act & Resolution of the Legislature, &c, and the Ratification of the said

 


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Constitution, at six Dollars each, the sum of four pounds ten shillings.

To Francis Witt, for the Use of a Room and for fire wood during the sitting of the Convention, the sum of four pounds two shillings.

To William Rogers for his attendance as Door keeper to the Convention, the sum of two pounds ten shillings.

Matthew Whillen.

On Motion,
Resolved unanimously, That the Thanks of this Convention be presented to the President for his able and faithful Discharge of the Duties of the Chair.

On Motion,
Resolved unanimously, That the President be requested to present the Thanks of this Convention to the Rev. Mr. Armstrong, for his attendance and services during their sitting.

On Motion
Resolved, That this Convention do now dissolve; whereupon the President dissolved the Convention accordingly.