Healthy New Jersey

NJ Office of Broadband Connectivity

This glossary is provided as a reader aid to help our website users understand the common terminology and acronyms they will find on our website. It is not a complete list of broadband terminology. Please contact us if you have any questions about terms that use on our site.

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Backhaul: The telecommunications link used to transport traffic from a geographically distant point, such as a wireless base station, to a significant aggregation point in the network, such as a mobile telephone switching office or Internet peering point.

Bandwidth: The maximum data transfer rate from one point to another at a given time period over a network or the rate at which data can be transmitted across a network. 

Bluetooth: An industry standard using unlicensed radio frequency spectrum for wireless connectivity over short distances to link computers, wireless handsets, and other devices.

Broadband: High-speed Internet access that is always on and faster than the traditional dial-up access. The Federal Communications Commission defines basic broadband as transmission speeds of at least 25 Mbps download and 3 Mbps upload.


Cable Connection: While lacking in speed and potential reliability of fiber optics, cable internet connections are one of the most common types of connections available for access. This type of internet access uses the same coaxial connection that providers use for broadcasting cable television signals. Historically, limitations with regard to speed reliability can be a concern, as coaxial cables are susceptible to network congestion and slowed speeds, especially during peak usage times.

Carrier of last resort: The carrier that commits (or is required by law) to provide service to any customer in a service area that requests it, even if serving that customer would not be economically viable at prevailing rates.

Cellular Wireless With this connection type, your cellular carrier connects your router or hotspot to the cellular tower nearest you, just like it does with your phone. Speeds vary based on how close you are to a tower but are likely to be faster than with a fixed wireless connection. Download speeds vary depending on the cellular carrier, location of access and other factors, such as network congestion. Also, data usage and speed can be limited if you don't have a cellular plan that offers unlimited data access.

Census block: The smallest geographic unit for which the Census Bureau collects and tabulates decennial census data.

Census tract: A small, relatively permanent statistical subdivision of a county, designed to contain roughly 1,000 to 8,000 people who are relatively homogeneous with respect to their demographics, economic status and living conditions.

Common carrier: A telecommunications provider, such as a telephone company, that offers its services for a fee to the public indiscriminately.

Community Anchor Institutions: Refer to schools, libraries, public safety institutions (firehouses and police departments), colleges and universities, healthcare facilities and other community support organizations. These institutions can provide outreach, access and equipment to support the greater use of broadband services. 

Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC): A company that offers local telephone service in competition with the legacy telephone company.


Dark fiber: A fiber optic cable that is laid and ready for use, but for which the service provider has not provided modulating electronics; usually contrasted to lit fiber, which is fiber optic cable in use to provide wired communications.

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS): A standard for the transmission of data over a cable network.

Digital divide: The gap between those who have access to digital technology and those who do not. These technologies include but are not limited to; smartphones, computers and the internet. The gap is a result of economic, educational, and/ or social inequalities between those who have computers and online access and those who do not. 

Digital equity: When all members of a community have equal access and sufficient digital literacy to use communications technologies. 

Digital inclusion: Activities necessary to ensure that all individuals and communities have access to information and communication technologies, and the literacy and resilience to use them. Digital inclusion ultimately leads to digital equity.

Digital resilience: The awareness, skills, agility, and confidence to be empowered users of new technologies and adapt to changing digital skill demands.

Digital literacy: The ability to use information and communication technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information, requiring both cognitive and technical skills.

DSL Connection: Short for digital subscriber line, this type of connection is usually available where access to fiber optic or cable is limited. This connection utilizes traditional phone lines; however, unlike dial-up access of the past, you can continue to use your internet connection without worrying about incoming or outgoing phone calls. DSL connections are fairly reliable and affordable, but this type of connection lacks the speed and reliability of higher speed fiber optic or cable connections.


Fiber Option Connection: This technology is based on glass cables that transmit data through pulses of light with connectivity that can reach blistering speeds. Each fiber is smaller than a human hair and bundled into strands that make up one cable. As a leading innovative technology of the 20th century, fiber connections have facilitated the modern development of our world. Today, fiber networks connect almost every location on earth to internet infrastructure and can support speeds and reliability that are far superior to other connection types (background information on the development of fiber cable can be found here). The one disadvantage to fiber technology is availability. Fiber-to-the-premises networks tend to be expensive and are best suited for denser areas, or where the value and importance of the connection warrants the greater expense.

Fixed Wireless: Fixed wireless means transmissions between equipment that is fixed in specific locations, usually a tower in one location and an antenna on your home or business. Fixed wireless networks still require fiber, but that fiber only goes to towers and other transmission sites—the signal travels wirelessly from there. All fixed wireless internet connections require a direct line of sight, so if there are hills, trees, buildings or other obstacles nearby, they can distort your connection. In addition, weather can play into connectivity issues, but not nearly as bad as what could be experienced with a satellite internet connection.


Ethernet: A type of digital transmission service. Traditionally, Ethernet operates at 10 megabits per second (Mbps) (also known as 10-Base-T), although 100-Base-T (100 Mbps) and Gigabit (1,000 Mbps) Ethernet are also available.


FCC: Federal Communications Commission

Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH): Is used to specify those that use fiber to connect the subscriber because most telecommunications networks use fiber in some part of their networks. FTTH may be more expensive to install currently, but offers significant savings in terms of maintenance when compared to copper alternatives. 


Intelligent Transportation System (ITS): A broad range of advanced communications technologies that, when integrated into transportation infrastructure and vehicles, relieves congestion, improves safety, and mitigates environmental impact.

Internet Service Provider (ISP): A company that provides businesses, homes, anchor institutions, etc., with a connection to the internet. They use many technologies to bring internet service to their customers, including fiber, DSL, cable, fixed wireless or satellite.


Last-mile broadband: The final leg of a telecommunications network that delivers service to retail end-users (customers). Last-mile network connections come from middle-mile networks. 


Middle-mile broadband: The telecommunication network of robust, high-speed fiber or fixed wireless that brings broadband close enough to a residence or business so an internet service provider (ISP) may provide internet access. Middle-mile connects to the global internet backbone.

Modem: A piece of customer premise equipment typically managed by a broadband provider as the last connection point to the managed network.

Multi-use facility: A large group of residences or businesses that need internet. For example, apartment buildings and shopping centers. 


Next Generation 911 (NG911): An emergency response system that integrates the core functionalities of the E911 system and also supports multimedia communications (such as texting, e-mail, and video) to the PSAP and to emergency personnel on the ground.

Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM): A notice containing a proposal for adoption of new rules. The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) requires that an agency, before promulgating a binding rule, must publish general notice of its proposal in the Federal Register.


Open source: A software development model by which the source code to a computer program is made available publicly under a license that gives users the right to modify and redistribute the program.


Point of Presence: A physical location where a communications carrier allows other carriers to access its network.

Pole attachment: Any attachment by a cable television system or provider of communications service to a pole, duct, conduit, or right-of-way owned or controlled by a utility.

Propagation model:  an empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of radio wave propagation as a function of frequency, distance and other conditions.

Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP): A call center responsible for answering emergency calls and dispatching emergency services.

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN): The legacy circuit-switched telephone network.


Remote patient monitoring: Using devices and communications networks to remotely collect and send diagnostic data to a monitoring station for interpretation. For example, measuring blood pressure when a patient is at home.

Right-of-way: The right to pass over or occupy a particular piece of land. For example, utilities generally receive rights-of-way from municipalities to erect and wire poles to carry electricity, telecommunications services, and cable service.


Service Level Agreement (SLA): An agreement between a user and a service provider defining the nature of the service provided and establishing metrics for that service, trouble reporting procedures and penalties if the service provider fails to perform.

Smart Grid: The electric delivery network, from electrical generation to end-use customer, integrated with sensors, software, and two-way communications technologies to improve grid reliability, security, and efficiency.

Smart meter: A digital meter (typically electric) located on the customer premises that records energy usage and has two-way communications capabilities with utility systems.


Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS): A telephone service that enables persons with TTYs, individuals who use sign language and people who have speech and hearing disabilities to use telephone services by having a third party transmit and translate a call. Consumers can access these services by using, for example, video phones, computers, web-enabled devices, captioned telephones, and TTYs.

Transport: The transmission facilities between the wire center or switch of an incumbent local exchange carrier and the wire center or switch of another carrier.


Unserved (per FCC): Households or businesses that do not have access to internet speeds of 25 Mbps download/ 3 Mbps upload or higher. 

Underserved (per FCC): Households or businesses that do not have access to internet speeds between 25 Mbps download/ 3 Mbps upload and 100 Mbps download/ 20 Mbps upload or higher. 

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