Bacteria Monitoring
A Water Quality Concern

Elevated concentrations of bacteria in the water can make humans sick if they come into contact with it.

Scientists monitor levels of fecal coliform, enterococcus and total coliform (the unit of measurement is cfu/100mL) in surface water to see if harmful bacteria are present. 

To maintain water quality in the Delaware River, the DRBC has adopted criteria for bacteria that is protective of recreation, which is one of the river's designated uses. There are two levels:

(a) primary contact recreation, such as swimming, jet skiing and kayaking; and

(b) secondary contact recreation, such as fishing and boating

Primary contact activities allow for closer contact with the water than secondary; therefore, primary contact recreation waters have stricter bacteria criteria.

Bacteria monitoring was discussed as part of a DRBC presentation at the 9th Annual Delaware River Watershed Forum, Sept. 2021: Restoring Water Quality in the Main Stem Delaware River: Programs, Policies and Strategies (pdf 3.6 MB)

Study Initiated in 2019
DRBC Mgr. of Water Quality Assessment John Yagecic and Water Quality Intern Daisy DePaz collect a surface water sample to monitor for bacteria levels. Photo by DRBC. 
DRBC Mgr. of Water Quality Assessment John Yagecic and
Water 
Quality Intern Daisy DePaz collect a surface water
sample to 
monitor for bacteria levels in 2019. Photo by DRBC. 

In the portion of the Delaware River around Philadelphia and Camden, known as DRBC Water Quality Zone 3 and upper Zone 4, the river's designated use is for secondary contact recreation.

However, primary contact recreation - such as tubing and jet skiing - has been observed.

To see if bacteria levels meet the criteria for this type of close-contact recreation, DRBC initiated a focused bacterial monitoring effort in 2019 in this urban stretch of the tidal Delaware River.

DRBC sampled five times a month during May - September 2019 from five access points in New Jersey and three in Pennsylvania. 

View Map of Sampling Locations (jpg 439 KB)

For this study, data were collected near-shore (where recreation is occurring). This complements our existing Delaware Estuary Water Quality Monitoring Program, which collects bacterial data from the river's center channel.

Samples were collected after heavy rains and during drier periods. 

One cause of elevated bacteria levels in Philadelphia and Camden's waterways is stormwater runoff and/or combined sewer overflows during and after heavy rains. When a sewer system is combined, raw sewage, in addition to basic runoff, can enter the river. The Philadelphia Water Department created a Public Notification System for Combined Sewer Overflows to keep the public informed of when these occur.

DRBC Manager of Water Quality Assessment John Yagecic, P.E., discussed this effort at the 2019 Annual Forum of the Coalition for the Delaware River Watershed: Recreational Uses and Criteria in the Delaware River (pdf 3 MB)

2020 Data Collection

Sampling in 2020 got a delayed start due to COVID-19 mitigation measures. Samples started being collected in July at the same locations as in 2019 (see map linked above), with the addition of Penn Treaty Park in Pa., which was closed for construction in 2019.

Samples were collected in July, August and September.

 

Bacterial Sampling by DRBC Staff: Penn's Landing Lagoon, August 2020

 

DRBC staff discussed this effort:

2021 Data Collection

In 2021, DRBC is collecting data on bacteria levels in the Delaware River Estuary:

  • Boat-Based, Center-Channel: via the Delaware Estuary Water Quality Monitoring Program 

  • Shore-Based: collected weekly May - September, same nine locations sampled in 2020:

    • In New Jersey: Pyne Point Park, National Park, Pennsauken Access, Palmyra Cove and Riverton Yacht Club

    • In Pennsylvania: Penn Treaty Park, Washington Ave. Green, Penn's Landing and Frankford Arsenal Access

  • Boat-Based, Transect: Five transects, five samples each: Chester, Red Bank, Penn's Landing, Pyne Poynt Park and Frankford Arsenal

View map of sampling locations (png)

Samples will be analyzed for E. coli, fecal coliform and enterococcus.

DRBC is coordinating with its Water Quality Advisory Committee regarding data assessment and next steps.

DRBC Water Quality Interns Kyle McAllister and Bailey Adams (L) collect a water sample to monitor bacteria levels. Photo by DRBC. DRBC Water Quality Intern Kyle McAllister collects a water sample to monitor bacteria levels. In 2021, boat-based collection in five transects in the Delaware Estuary complemented the DRBC's shore-based bacteria monitoring program. Photo by DRBC.
DRBC Water Quality Interns Bailey Adams (L) and Kyle
McAllister collect a water sample from the Delaware
River to monitor bacteria levels. In 2021, bacteria
samples were collected weekly from May-September
at nine locations in Pa. and N.J. Photo by DRBC.
DRBC Water Quality Intern Kyle McAllister collects a
water sample to monitor bacteria levels. In 2021,
boat-based collection in five transects in the Delaware
Estuary complemented the DRBC's shore-based bacteria
monitoring program. Photo by DRBC.
2021 Installation of Real-Time Bacteria Monitor with USGS

In 2021, DRBC partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to install an advanced next generation water-quality instrument to monitor bacteria indicators in Camden County’s Pyne Poynt Park, in Camden, N.J. The System was removed in advance of the winter season and is planned to be reinstalled in the spring of 2022.

The Fluidion Alert System instrument advances DRBC, USGS and the Basin community’s knowledge of the changing water quality in the urban Delaware River Estuary by providing near real-time bacterial data.

View News Release (issued October 12, 2021)

Funding for the Fluidion Alert System was generously provided by the U.S. EPA Urban Waters Federal Partnership and The William Penn Foundation.

USGS staff perform routine maintenance of the Fluidion monitor in Camden, N.J. Photo by DRBC. DRBC's Elaine Panuccio and John Yagecic, P.E., chekc out how USGS performs maintenance on the Fluidion monitor. Photo by DRBC. USGS staff perform routine maintenance on the Fluidion monitor. Photo by DRBC.
USGS staff perform routine maintenance on the Fluidion monitor, which collects real-time bacteria data in Camden, N.J.'s
Pyne Point Park. In the second photo, DRBC's Elaine Panuccio and John Yagecic check out the process. Photos by DRBC.
2022 Data Collection & Re-Deployment of Fluidion Monitor with USGS
DRBC staff collects a sample to monitor bacteria concentrations in the Delaware Estuary. Photo by the DRBC.
DRBC staff collects a sample to monitor bacteria
levels in the Delaware Estuary. Photo by the DRBC.

In 2022, DRBC's data collection to monitor bacteria levels in the Delaware River Estuary will continue:

  • Boat-Based, Center-Channel: via the Delaware Estuary Water Quality Monitoring Program

  • Shore-Based: collected weekly May - September, at the nine locations sampled in 2020 and 2021

         --New Jersey: Pyne Point Park, National Park, Pennsauken Access, Palmyra Cove and Riverton Yacht Club

         --Pennsylvania: Penn Treaty Park, Washington Ave. Green, Penn's Landing and Frankford Arsenal Access

         --A total of 15 sampling events; samples will be analyzed for E. coli, fecal coliform and enterococcus.

 

  • Microbial Source Tracking: 3 wet weather and 3 dry weather sampling events at each of the nine stations listed above.

         --Goal is to differentiate bacteria derived from humans, cows, horses, Canada geese, deer and dogs

         --Data anaysis by the New Jersey Center for Water Science and Technology at Montclair State University

The DRBC will continue to coordinate with its Water Quality Advisory Committee and co-regulators regarding data assessment and next steps.

Additional Info:

In May 2022, USGS scientists re-deployed a Fluidion Alert System - one of the first in the nation - to monitor near real-time Delaware River bacteria concentrations in Camden's Pyne Poynt Park. The DRBC is collaborating with the USGS on this effort.

Initially deployed in 2021, the Fluidion Alert System can remotely sample on demand and provide results the same day, rather than the typical three days traditional sampling methods take. Data collected from the Fluidion system will help water resource managers and local officials make timely, data-based decisions about water quality and public health, for example, are river conditions currently safe for recreation.

The site location for the Fluidion Alert System. Photo by the DRBC. The Fluidion Alert System. Photo by the DRBC.
The site location for the Fluidion Alert
System. Photo by the DRBC.
The Fluidion Alert System.
Photo by the DRBC.